Nutrigenomics AND Beyond

INFORMING THE FUTURE

Workshop Summary

Ann L. Yaktine and Robert Pool, Rapporteurs

Food and Nutrition Board

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary Nutrigenomics AND Beyond INFORMING THE FUTURE Workshop Summary Ann L. Yaktine and Robert Pool, Rapporteurs Food and Nutrition Board INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Contract No. 59-1235-6-133 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Agriculture; Contract No. 236-MO-607868 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health; and Contract No. 236-MD-608975 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Additional support came from Institute of Medicine internal funds. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10489-0 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10489-0 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: Institute of Medicine (IOM). 2007. Nutrigenomics and beyond: Informing the future. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary “Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” —Goethe INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON INFORMING NUTRITION RESEARCH THROUGH NUTRIGENOMICS AND NUTRIGENETICS NICHOLAS J. SCHORK (Chair), Director of Research, Scripps Genomic Medicine and Professor, Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA ROBERT J. COUSINS, Boston Family Professor of Human Nutrition and Director, Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida J. GLENN MORRIS, JR., Professor and Chair, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine JOSE M. ORDOVAS, Director of Nutrition and Genomics Laboratory, Director of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition Programs, Professor of Nutrition and Genetics, Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center, Tufts University, MA PATRICK J. STOVER, Professor, Department of Nutritional Science, Cornell University, NY Consultant Writer ROBERT POOL Staff ANN L. YAKTINE, Study Director SANDRA AMAMOO-KAKRA, Senior Program Assistant

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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD* DENNIS M. BIER (Chair), Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX MICHAEL P. DOYLE (Vice Chair), Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia, Griffin DIANE BIRT, Center for Research on Dietary Botanical Supplements, Iowa State University, Ames YVONNE BRONNER, School of Public Health and Policy, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD SUSAN FERENC, Chemical Producers and Distributors Association, Alexandria, VA NANCY F. KREBS, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver REYNALDO MARTORELL, Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA J. GLENN MORRIS, JR., Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore SUZANNE P. MURPHY, Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, University of Hawaii, Honolulu JOSE M. ORDOVAS, Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA JIM E. RIVIERE, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NICHOLAS J. SCHORK, Scripps Genomic Medicine and The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA REBECCA J. STOLTZFUS, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY JOHN W. SUTTIE, Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison WALTER C. WILLETT, Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA BARRY L. ZOUMAS, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Staff LINDA D. MEYERS, Director GERALDINE KENNEDO, Administrative Assistant ANTON L. BANDY, Financial Associate * Institute of Medicine boards do not review or approve individual reports and are not asked to endorse conclusions and recommendations. The responsibility for the content of the report rests with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Joseph H. Nadeau, Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University Nicholas J. Schork, Scripps Genomic Medicine and Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA Patrick Stover, Institute for Nutritional Genomics, Department of Nutritional Science, Cornell University Roger Sunde, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Jim E. Riviere, Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics and College of

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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary Veterinary Medicine, College of Physical and Mathematical Science, North Carolina State University. Appointed by the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary Contents     SUMMARY   1     THE PROMISE OF NUTRIGENOMICS   3      Introduction,   3      Keynote Address,   3      Introductory Comments to the Scientific Sessions,   6 1   SCIENTIFIC SESSION I: HUMAN GENETIC VARIATION AND NUTRITION   7      New Tools for Understanding the Role of Genetic Variation in Health and Disease,   7      Implementation of the Human HapMap Initiative and Large-Scale Polymorphism Studies,   13      Contemporary Nutrigenetics Studies,   15 2   SCIENTIFIC SESSION II: EPIGENETICS   17      Critical Events: Genomic Programming and Reprogramming,   17      Folate Metabolism and the Fetal Origins of Adult Disease,   23      The Role of Maternal and Infant Nutrition in Genetic Programming and Epigenetics,   27 3   SCIENTIFIC SESSION III: SYSTEMS BIOLOGY   31      Genetic Networks and Applied Systems Biology,   32      Genome-Scale Reconstruction of the Human Metabolic Network,   36      Emerging Technologies: Nanotechnology,   39

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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary 4   IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE   41      Issues in Ethics,   41      Science Journalism and the Nutrigenomics Revolution,   45      Needs and Opportunities in the Biomedical Sciences: Interacting Networks,   47      Nutrigenomics: Industry’s Perspective,   50      Needs and Opportunities in the Food and Agricultural Sciences,   54      The Economic Potential of Nutrigenomics,   56      Nutrigenomics in Academic and Public Health: How Can We Move the Field Forward?,   58     APPENDIXES     A   Glossary   61 B   Workshop Agenda   65 C   Speaker Biographies   69