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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary Appendix A Glossary ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS CVD Cardiovascular disease Dnmt DNA methyltransferase gene FLP Fibrinogen-like proteins FRT FLP recognition target HDAC Histone deacetlyase IAP Intracisternal A-particle ICF Immunedeficiency Centromeric region instability and Facial abnormalities IPE IAP proximal enhancer element MeCP2 Methylene-CpG-binding protein MTHFR Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase SHMT Serine hydroxymethyltransferase SNP Single nucleotide polymorphism DEFINITIONS APC tumor suppressor The APC tumor suppressor gene is mutated in familial adenomatous polyposis and in approximately 80 percent of sporadic colon cancers. Chimera An individual or organism whose cells and tissues have non-uniform or”mosaic” genetic elements.
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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary Chromatin A complex of DNA and proteins that makes up chromosomes. Chromatin functions to package DNA into a small enough volume to fit in a cell, facilitate mitosis and meiosis, and help control gene expression CRE-lox A system for rapid execution of homologous recombination-mediated insertion or deletion in the mouse genome. The bacteriophage P1 encodes the recombination system consisting of loxP, a short asymmetric DNA sequence, and the CRE recombinase enzyme. CRE mediates site-specific recombination between loxP sites. Enhancer and silencer elements Specific genomic regions with genetic sequences that influence transcriptional activation. Epigenetic Mechanisms, processes, and/or biological compounds that affect a cell, organ, or individual without changing or perturbing DNA. FLP/FRT A technique of induced somatic recombination using the FLP site-specific recombinase and FRT (FLP recombinase target). When expression of FLP is induced by heat shock it catalyzes crossing-over and recombination of maternal and paternal chromosomes at the FRT site. Knockout mutation A technique for targeted disruption of specific gene(s). A null mutation is introduced into a gene by designed alteration in a cloned DNA sequence; the sequence is then introduced into the genome by homologous recombination and replacement of the normal allele in embryonic stem cells, which, when injected into mouse embryos, gives rise to chimeric animals that no longer carry a gene they would normally have carried. Nutraceutical Any substance that is a food or part of a food that provides medical or health benefits, including preventing or treating disease. Phenotype The physical, biochemical, and physiologic makeup of an individual; determined by genetic and environmental factors. “Phenotype” is often used to refer to the overt, observable features that an individual has.
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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary PI 3-kinase Phosphotidalinositol-3-kinase; consists of a p85 regulatory subunit and a p110 catalytic subunit. This kinase phosphorylates inositol phospholipids and can be activated by receptor tyrosine kinases as well as other cell-surface receptors, including G-protein-linked receptors. Pleiotropy The ability of a single gene to produce multiple phenotypic effects. Ras MAP kinase A signal transduction pathway that mediates the growth-promoting effects of the tyrosine kinase receptor family of hormones. RNAi RNA interference; a tool to analyze the loss of function of individual genes, identify complex regulatory pathways, and silence genes through short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The process uses double-stranded RNA to suppress expression of a target gene by triggering specific degradation of the complementary messenger RNA sequence. shRNA Short hairpin RNA; RNA structure that is processed intracellularly into short duplex RNAs that have gene-silencing properties similar to siRNAs (see RNAi).
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