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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary Appendix C Speaker Biographies David Castle, Ph.D., is Canada Research Chair in Science and Society, Department of Philosophy, University of Ottawa. Dr. Castle’s research and teaching interests lie in the philosophy of the life sciences, with particular emphasis on evolutionary biology and ecology, environmental philosophy, and the ethical implications posed by biotechnology. He is a principal investigator of the Genome Canada-funded Canadian Program on Genomics and Global Health and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada-supported Legal Models of Biotechnology Intellectual Property Protection: A Transdisciplinary Approach. He is coeditor of Genetically Modified Foods: Debating Biotechnology, published by Prometheus Press, and Aquaculture, Innovation and Social Transformation, which is forthcoming from Springer. He has also published in Postgraduate Medical Journal, Biology and Philosophy, Dialectica, Ethics and the Environment, and Trends in Biotechnology and Public Affairs Quarterly. Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D., is a physician-geneticist noted for his landmark discoveries of disease genes and his leadership of the Human Genome Project and is director of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). With Dr. Collins at the helm, the Human Genome Project consistently met projected milestones ahead of schedule and under budget. This remarkable international project culminated in April 2003 with the completion of a finished sequence of the human genetic blueprint. Building on the foundation laid by the Human Genome Project, Dr. Collins is now leading
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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary NHGRI’s effort to ensure that this new trove of sequence data is translated into powerful tools and thoughtful strategies to advance biological knowledge and improve human health. Dr. Collins is also known for his consistent emphasis on the importance of ethical and legal issues in genetics. In addition to his achievements as the NHGRI director, Dr. Collins’s laboratory has discovered a number of important genes, including those responsible for cystic fibrosis, neurofibromatosis, Huntington’s disease, and most recently, the gene that causes Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, a dramatic form of premature aging. Dr. Collins received a B.S. from the University of Virginia, a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Yale University, and an M.D. from the University of North Carolina. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences. David R. Cox, M.D., Ph.D., is chief scientific officer of Perelegen Sciences, Inc. Dr. Cox is internationally recognized for his research on the molecular basis of human genetic disease. After receiving B.A. and M.S. degrees from Brown University in Rhode Island, Dr. Cox obtained M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Washington, Seattle. He then completed his pediatric residency at the Yale-New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut, and was a fellow in both genetics and pediatrics at the University of California, San Francisco. From 1980 to 1993, Dr. Cox held faculty positions in the Departments of Pediatrics, Biochemistry, and Psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco. In 1993, he accepted a position as a professor of genetics and pediatrics at the Stanford University School of Medicine as well as the position of codirector of the Stanford Genome Center. In October 2000, Dr. Cox left his position at Stanford University to become the chief scientific officer of Perelegen Sciences, Inc. Dr. Cox is certified by both the American Board of Pediatrics and the American Board of Medical Genetics. He has served on several international and national councils and commissions, including the Council of the Human Genome Organization and the National Bioethics Advisory Commission. He currently serves as a member of the Health Sciences Policy Board of the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Cox’s honors include election to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. Patricia Danzon, Ph.D., is the Celia Moh Professor at the Wharton School of Management, University of Pennsylvania, where she is also professor and chair of the Health Care Systems Department and professor of insurance and risk management. Professor Danzon received a B.A. from Oxford University, Oxford, England, and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago. Professor Danzon is an internationally recognized expert in the fields of health care, pharmaceuticals, insurance, and liability
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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary systems. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Social Insurance. She has served as a consultant to the World Bank, the European Commission, the New Zealand Treasury, the Asian Development Bank, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the Institute for Civil Justice, the Alliance of American Insurers, and others. Professor Danzon is an associate editor of the Journal of Health Economics and the International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics. She has published widely in scholarly journals on a broad range of subjects related to medical care, pharmaceuticals, insurance, and the economics of law. Selected publications include: Cross National Price Differences for Pharmaceuticals: How Large and Why? (with L. W. Chao, Journal of Health Economics, 2000); Pharmaceutical Price Regulation: Global vs. National Interests (AEI Press, 1997); Medical Malpractice: Theory, Evidence and Public Policy (Harvard University Press, 1985); The Impact of Price Regulation on the Launch Delay of New Drugs (with Y. Richard Wang and Liang Wang, Health Economics, 2005); Productivity in Pharmaceutical-Biotechnology R&D: The Role of Experience and Alliances (with Sean Nicholson and Nuno Pereira, Journal of Health Economics, 2005); and Biotech-Pharma Alliances as a Signal of Asset and Firm Quality (with Sean Nicholson and Jeff McCulloch, Journal of Business, 2005). Harvey V. Fineberg, M.D., Ph.D., is president of the Institute of Medicine. He served as provost of Harvard University from 1997 to 2001, following 13 years as dean of the Harvard School of Public Health. He has devoted most of his academic career to the fields of health policy and medical decision making. Dr. Fineberg helped found and served as president of the Society for Medical Decision Making and also served as adviser and consultant to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization. At the Institute of Medicine, he has chaired and served on a number of panels dealing with health policy issues, ranging from AIDS to vaccine safety. He is the author, coauthor, and coeditor of numerous books and articles on such diverse topics as AIDS prevention, tuberculosis control, assessment of new medical technology, clinical and public health decision making, and understanding risk in society. Cutberto Garza, M.D., Ph.D., is academic vice president and dean of faculties of Boston College. He is an internationally recognized expert on infant and maternal nutrition. He has published extensively in this field, with more than 200 contributions to the peer-reviewed literature, monographs, and technical reports. Before joining Boston College, he served as director of the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell University from 1988 to 1998, was reappointed to this position from 2003 to 2005, and served as vice provost of Cornell University from 1998 to 2000. He
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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary served as director of the United Nations University’s Food and Nutrition Program from 1998 to 2006. Before moving to Cornell, he held the rank of professor of pediatrics at Baylor College of Medicine and served as associate director for the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Baylor Children’s Nutrition Research Center. He has served on numerous advisory groups for the U.S. government, the National Academies, the World Health Organization, the World Food Program, and other local and international agencies. Among these appointments are chair of the 1999 U.S. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee appointed by the secretaries of the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services and cochair of the US-EU Biotechnology Forum, appointed by Presidents Bill Clinton and Romano Prodi. He served as chair of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine from 1996 to 2002. He currently chairs the World Health Organization’s Multicenter Growth Reference Study, a six-country effort designed to develop new international growth standards for infants and young children, and on the Food and Drug Administration’s Food Advisory Committee. Dr. Garza received an M.D. from the Baylor College of Medicine in 1973 and a Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1976. He was the recipient of the 1996 Feinstein World Hunger Prize for Research and Education, awarded by Brown University. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and was named to the inaugural class of National Associates of the National Academy of Sciences in 2006 in recognition of his contributions to the work of the Academies. Peter J. Gillies, Ph.D., F.A.H.A., is an adjunct professor in the Department of Nutrition Science at The Pennsylvania State University, University Park; an adjunct professor in the Department of Nutrition at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and a senior research fellow in Central Research and Development at the DuPont Company in Wilmington Delaware. Dr. Gillies received a Ph.D. in medical science from McMaster University in 1978. His research interests are in molecular nutrition, nutritional genomics, and cardioinflammatory diseases; his technical expertise resides in the areas of lipoprotein metabolism, pharmacology, and toxicology. Ralph Greenspan, Ph.D., has worked on the genetic foundations of behavior in the fruit fly (Drosophila) almost since the inception of the field, studying with one of its founders, Jeffrey Hall, at Brandeis University, where Dr. Greenspan received a Ph.D. in biology in 1979. He subsequently conducted research at Princeton University, the Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, and New York University before joining The Neurosciences Institute in San Diego in 1997, where he is the Dorothy and Lewis B. Cullman Fellow in Experimental Neurobiology. Dr. Greenspan’s research
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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary activities have included the demonstration that the fruit fly has sleep-like and attention-like behaviors similar to those of humans, the molecular identification of genes underlying natural variations in food-dependent behavior, and studies of the principles governing gene networks underlying behavior. Dr. Greenspan has been awarded fellowships by the Helen Hay Whitney Foundation, the Searle Scholars Program, the McKnight Foundation, the Sloan Foundation, and the Klingenstein Foundation. In addition to numerous research papers, he has also authored an article for Scientific American and several books, including Genetic Neurobiology (with Jeffrey Hall and William Harris) and Fly Pushing: The Theory and Practice of Drosophila Genetics, which has become a standard work in the field. Bernadine Healy, M.D., is a health editor for U.S. News & World Report and writes the On Health column for the magazine. A physician trained at Harvard University and the Johns Hopkins University, Healy is former president of the American Red Cross and is a past director of the NIH, where she started the Women’s Health Initiative. Dr. Healy served as deputy science advisor to President Ronald Reagan from 1984 to 1985. She has also served as president of the American Heart Association and was awarded the American Heart Association Special Award for Service and the 1992 Dana Foundation’s Distinguished Achievement Award for her work on promoting research on the health problems of women. She is currently a member of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and is a leader in patient care research and education. Dr. Healy has been a member of the Institute of Medicine since 1987. Rudolf Jaenisch, M.D., is a founding member of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and a professor of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is a pioneer in making transgenic mice, some of which have produced important advances in understanding cancer, neurological and connective tissue diseases, and developmental abnormalities. These methods have been used to explore basic questions, such as the role of DNA modification, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, nuclear cloning, and, most recently, the nature of stem cells. His laboratory is renowned for its expertise in cloning mice and in studying the myriad factors that contribute to the success and failure of this process. Dr. Jaenisch and colleagues have more recently gained insights into therapeutic cloning and, indeed, have rescued mice with a genetic defect through therapeutic cloning and gene therapy. Dr. Jaenisch also directs the new human stem cell facility at the Whitehead Institute. Dr. Jaenisch received an M.D. from the University of Munich. He is an elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and is a member of
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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary the National Academy of Sciences and the International Society for Stem Cell Research. C. Ronald Kahn, M.D., received undergraduate and medical degrees from the University of Louisville. After training in internal medicine at Washington University, he moved to the NIH, where he rose to become the head of the Section on Cellular and Molecular Physiology of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. In 1981, he moved to Boston to become research director of the Joslin Diabetes Center. In 1984 he became professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and in 1986 the Mary K. Iacocca Professor. Under his leadership, the amount of research performed at the Joslin Diabetes Center grew more than 10-fold. In 2000, he was named president and director of the Joslin Diabetes Center. Dr. Kahn is the preeminent investigator of insulin signal transduction and mechanisms of altered signaling in disease. His laboratory has produced multiple seminal observations regarding the insulin receptor kinase, its substrates, the molecular components of the insulin-signaling network, and their alterations in disease; these finding have revolutionized the field. Dr. Kahn has received numerous honors and awards, including the highest scientific awards of the American Diabetes Association, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, the British Diabetes and British Endocrine Societies, the International Diabetes Federation, the American Federation of Clinical Research, and the Endocrine Society, as well as the Hamdan Award for Medical Research, the Rolf Luft Award of the Karolinska University, the Lawson Wilkins Award of the Pediatric Endocrine Society, the Beering Award of Indiana University, and the Allyn Taylor International Prize in Medicine. Dr. Kahn has served on many national commissions and advisory boards, including chairman of the congressionally established Diabetes Research Working Group. Dr. Kahn has also served as president of the American Society of Clinical Investigation and on the editorial boards of multiple journals. In 1999, Dr. Kahn was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine for his distinguished achievements in original research. Dr. Kahn also holds honorary doctor of science degrees from the University of Paris, the University of Louisville, and the University of Geneva and is an honorary professor at the Peking University School of Medicine. Susan Okie, M.D., is a physician and medical writer for the Health section of The Washington Post. She attended Swarthmore and Radcliffe Colleges and Harvard Medical School. Dr. Okie came to The Washington Post as a summer intern while in medical school, and after graduating, she joined the paper’s metropolitan staff in 1979 as a medical reporter.
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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary Her 1980 series on D.C. General Hospital won the Washington-Baltimore Newspaper Guild’s Public Service Award. In 1981, she left The Washington Post to complete a residency in family practice at the University of Connecticut. She then taught part-time in the university’s family medicine department and worked at a clinic in Hartford. From 1985 to 1991, Dr. Okie was a reporter on The Washington Post’s national staff, covering medicine and biomedical research. She spent 3 years in Kenya as a special correspondent reporting on AIDS, wildlife biology, family planning, anthropology, and other scientific and social issues. Upon her return to the United States in 1994, she became The Washington Post’s national science editor, and in 1996, she returned to reporting as a staff writer for the weekly Health section. Jose M. Ordovas, Ph.D., is senior scientist and director of the Nutrition and Genomics Laboratory, Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, at Tufts University. Dr. Ordovas’s major research interests focus on the genetic factors that predispose individuals to cardiovascular disease and their interaction with the environment and behavioral factors, with a special emphasis on diet, particularly omega-3 and -6 fatty acids. He has participated in the Framingham Heart Study for nearly 20 years and is carrying out multiple cross-cultural studies to determine cardiovascular risk in different populations around the world, including Asian Pacific and Mediterranean populations. He has published about 400 original research articles and has written numerous reviews and edited several books on diet and coronary heart disease, diet and genetics, and the role of omega-3 fatty acids on lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. Dr. Ordovas serves on numerous editorial boards and is active with several American Heart Association and NIH committees, including the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Program Projects Parent Committee. Throughout his career, Dr. Ordovas has contributed his expertise to various global organizations. He has served as a nutrition expert for the American Soybean Association, consulting for Mexico and Central America; was named expert consultant to the Singapore Ministry of Health; and is the recipient of the Francisco Grande Memorial Lecture for Excellence in Nutrition. Bernhard Ø. Palsson, Ph.D., is professor of bioengineering and adjunct professor of medicine at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Professor Palsson is the author of more than 200 peer-reviewed scientific articles. His current research at UCSD focuses on (1) the reconstruction of genome-scale biochemical reaction networks, (2) the development of mathematical analysis procedures for genome-scale models, and (3) the experimental verification of genome-scale models, with a current emphasis on cellular metabolism and transcriptional regulation in Escherichia
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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary coli and yeast. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin that he earned in 1984. Professor Palsson held a faculty position at the University of Michigan for 11 years from 1984 to 1995. He received an Institute of International Education Fellowship in 1977, a Rotary Fellowship in 1979, and a North Atlantic Treaty Organization fellowship in 1984; was named the G. G. Brown Associate Professor at Michigan in 1989, a Fulbright Fellow in 1995, and an Ib Henriksen Fellow in 1996; and received the Olaf Hougen Professorship at the University of Wisconsin in 1999 and the Lindbergh Tissue Engineering award in 2001. Dr. Palsson sits on the editorial boards of several bioengineering and biotechnology journals. He holds more than 20 U.S. patents, many of which are in the area of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cell culture technology, bioreactor design, gene transfer, cell separations, high-throughput single-cell manipulation, network reconstruction, in silico model building, and metabolic engineering. He cofounded a biotechnology company, AASTROM BIOSCIENCES, in 1988, where he served as the vice president of developmental research for 2 years. Dr. Palsson is also the founder and cofounder of ONCOSIS, a company that is focused on the purging of occult tumor cells in autologous bone marrow transplants; CYNTELLECT, a company that is focused on instrumentation for high-throughput screening and in situ cell sorting and processing; GENOMATICA, a company that is focused on in silico biology; and the Iceland Genomics Corporation, a company that is focused on tracing the genetic basis for common human diseases in the Icelandic population. Martin Philbert, Ph.D., received a Ph.D. in 1988 in neurochemistry and experimental neuropathology from the Royal Postgraduate Medical School of London University in England. There he received a Medical Research Council Scholarship in experimental neuropathology. In the spring of 1988, Dr. Philbert was recruited as a postdoctoral fellow in neurotoxicology at Rutgers University. While he was at Rutgers, Dr. Philbert investigated the mechanisms by which chemicals that gain access to the central nervous system produce specific neurotoxic effects. In 1995, he joined the Toxicology Faculty at the University of Michigan as an assistant professor. Dr. Philbert is a professor of toxicology and senior associate dean for research at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. He has provided service on a variety of committees at the university, including the President’s Commission on Undergraduate Education, the University Taskforce on Multidisciplinary Teaching, and the University Committee on the Use and Care of Animals. Currently, Dr. Philbert provides consultation to the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program; is a scientific advisor to the International Life Sciences Institute in
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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary Washington, D.C.; and is a member of the American College of Toxicology. He teaches courses in general pathology, toxicologic pathology, and mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Dr. Philbert’s research interests include the development of nanotechnology for the intracellular measurement of biochemicals and ions and for the early detection and treatment of brain tumors. He is also actively engaged in the investigation of mechanisms of chemically induced energy deprivation syndromes in the central nervous system. He has published more than 100 scholarly manuscripts, book chapters, and abstracts and is the recipient of the 2001 Society of Toxicology Achievement Award. Dr. Philbert holds or has held grant awards from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Department of Defense’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the W. M. Keck Foundation. Robert M. Russell, M.D., is a professor of medicine and nutrition at Tufts University and director of the Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University in Boston. He has served on national and international advisory boards, including the USDA Human Investigation Committee (chairman), boards of the Food and Drug Administration, the U.S. Pharmacopoeial Convention, the National Dairy Council Advisory Board, and boards of the American Gastroenterology Association and the American Board of Internal Medicine. He has worked on international nutrition programs in several countries, including Vietnam, Iran, Iraq, Guatemala, China, and the Philippines. Dr. Russell is a member of numerous professional societies, on the editorial boards of five professional journals, past president of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and editor of Nutrition Reviews. Dr. Russell coauthored the standards for parenteral and enteral nutrition to be used in U.S. long-term-care facilities. He is a staff gastroenterologist at the New England Medical Center Hospitals. Dr. Russell’s primary work involves studying the effects of aging on gastrointestinal absorptive function. He is a noted expert in the area of human metabolism of retinoids and carotenoids. Dr. Russell served as a member of the Food and Nutrition Board’s Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and was chair of the Food and Nutrition Board’s Panel on Micronutrients. Dr. Russell received a B.S. from Harvard University and an M.D. from Columbia University. He is currently chair of the Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board. Joseph T. Spence, Ph.D., joined the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in 1993, when he was appointed director of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland. This is the oldest ARS-
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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary funded human nutrition research center and, under his direction, has become the largest of the ARS-funded human nutrition research centers. The center is actively conducting research on nutrition and immunology, phytonutrients, food composition, nutrition monitoring, and the role of individual nutrients in maintaining health. He received a doctoral degree in nutritional biochemistry from Cornell University in 1977 and was an NIH postdoctoral fellow at the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research of the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He was a health scientist administrator at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of NIH. He was professor of biochemistry and associate dean for research and graduate studies at the School of Medicine of the State University of New York at Buffalo prior to his arrival at Beltsville. His research interest is in the regulation of gene expression in the liver in response to dietary and hormonal influences. In August 2003, he was appointed deputy administrator for nutrition, food safety and quality, where he oversees the ARS national programs related to food and nutrition as well as value-added products, product quality, and bio-based products. Sally Squires is an award-winning, nationally syndicated columnist for the Washington Post. She holds a master’s degree in nutrition from the Columbia University’s Institute of Human Nutrition and a master’s degree in journalism also from Columbia. In 2001, she began the Lean Plate Club, a weekly column about nutrition and physical activity that now has a national circulation of more than five million readers. She’s also heard twice weekly on WTWP radio, hosts the popular Lean Plate Club (LPC) web chat at washingtonpost.com and writes an LPC e-mail newsletter that reaches more than a quarter million readers weekly. Her articles have appeared in numerous national magazines and she’s the author of the newly published book Secrets of the Lean Plate Club (St. Martin’s Press). Patrick J. Stover, Ph.D., is professor and director of the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell University. He is also director of the Cornell Institute for Nutritional Genomics. Dr. Stover’s research interests are in the regulation of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism, the development of mouse models to elucidate mechanisms of folate-related pathologies, and the translational control of gene expression by ferritin. In 1996 he received the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on outstanding scientists and engineers beginning their independent careers. He received the ERL Stokstad Award in Nutritional Biochemistry from the American Society for Nutritional Sciences in 1999 and has been selected as an Outstanding Educator four times by Cornell Merrill Presidential Scholars.
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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary MODERATORS Robert J. Cousins, Ph.D., holds the Boston Family Chair in Nutrition and is director of the Center for Nutritional Sciences and affiliate professor of biochemistry at the University of Florida. His research activities span the molecular and cell biology of zinc absorption, metabolism, and function; nutritional genomics; and technologies for nutritional status assessment. Dr. Cousins’ laboratory has produced more than 65 graduate students and postdoctoral associates in nutritional sciences and biochemistry. In his area of research, Dr. Cousins ranks among the top one-half of 1 percent of the most highly cited authors, and he is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences. Rowena Matthews, Ph.D., is the G. Robert Greenburg Professor of Biological Chemistry, a research professor in the Life Sciences Institute, a research professor in the Biophysics Research Division, and a professor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Michigan. She received a B.A. in biology (summa cum laude) at Radcliffe College in 1960 and a Ph.D. in biophysics from the University of Michigan in 1969. Dr. Matthews studies the mechanisms of folate-dependent enzymes and their regulation. Through skillful analytical analyses, she has gained important insights into the chemistry of a large number of transformations of central importance to cellular metabolism. Dr. Matthews is a senior fellow in the Michigan Society of Fellows, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a fellow of American Society for Microbiology. In 2002 Dr. Matthews was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and became a member of the Institute of Medicine in 2004. In 2005 she was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. John Milner, Ph.D., is chief of the Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute. In this position he promotes research that deals with the physiologic importance of dietary bioactive compounds as modifiers of cancer risk and tumor behavior. Previously, Dr. Milner was professor and head in the Department of Nutrition at The Pennsylvania State University, where he also served as director of the Graduate Program in Nutrition. Dr. Milner received a doctorate in nutrition, with a minor in biochemistry and physiology, from Cornell University in 1974. He is a member of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, the American Association of Cancer Research, the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, the American Chemical Society’s Food and Chemistry Division, and the Institute of Food Technology. Dr. Milner is a fellow in the American Association for the Advancement of Science and serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Medical Food, Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Nutrition and Cancer, Comprehensive
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Nutrigenomics and Beyond: Informing the Future - Workshop Summary Reviews of Food Science/Food Safety and Nutrition, Nutrition and Foods, and Journal of Nutrition. Nicholas J. Schork, Ph.D., is Director of Research at Scripps Genomic Medicine, a division of Scripps Health, and a professor of Molecular and Experimental Medicine at The Scripps Research Institute. Previously, he was a professor of Psychiatry and Biostatistics at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Schork’s research focuses on human genetic and phenotypic variation, including sequence characterization of genetic variants and related bioinformatics analysis, the molecular physiologic impact of sequence variation, physiologic genomics, the clinical impact of polymorphism, pharmacogenetics, linkage and association analysis, and applied population genetics. His previous positions were as an associate professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at Case Western Reserve University, associate director of the Program for Population Genetics and adjunct associate professor of biostatistics at Harvard University, and an adjunct associate staff scientist at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. Dr. Schork serves on a number of journal editorial boards, and is a frequent participant on NIH-related steering committees and review boards. Dr. Schork has published more than 200 scientific articles and book chapters on genomic analysis of complex traits and diseases. He previously served on the Institute of Medicine Committee on Twin Studies and is a member of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine.
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