THE FUTURE OF U.S. Chemistry Research

BENCHMARKS AND CHALLENGES

Committee on Benchmarking the Research Competitiveness of the United States in Chemistry

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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The Future of U.S. Chemistry Research: Benchmarks and Challenges THE FUTURE OF U.S. Chemistry Research BENCHMARKS AND CHALLENGES Committee on Benchmarking the Research Competitiveness of the United States in Chemistry Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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The Future of U.S. Chemistry Research: Benchmarks and Challenges NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CTS-0534814 and the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DE-FG02-05ER15735. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10533-0 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10533-1 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 2007927596 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The Future of U.S. Chemistry Research: Benchmarks and Challenges THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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The Future of U.S. Chemistry Research: Benchmarks and Challenges COMMITTEE ON BENCHMARKING THE RESEARCH COMPETITIVENESS OF THE UNITED STATES IN CHEMISTRY Chairperson CHARLES P. CASEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison Members JOANNA AIZENBERG, Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, Murray Hill, NJ PAUL S. ANDERSON, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (retired), Lansdale, PA LOUIS E. BRUS, Columbia University, New York, NY SYLVIA T. CEYER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge GREGORY R. CHOPPIN, Florida State University (emeritus), Tallahassee CATHERINE C. FENSELAU, University of Maryland, College Park JOANNA S. FOWLER, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY JOSEPH S. FRANCISCO, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN TIMOTHY E. LONG, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg TOBIN J. MARKS, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL MICHELE PARRINELLO, ETH Zürich, Switzerland CHI-HUEY WONG, Academia Sinica (Taiwan) and Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA Staff ALBERT EPSHTEYN, Christine Mirzayan Graduate Fellow (January-March 2007) TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Program Officer KELA MASTERS, Project Assistant ERICKA MCGOWAN, Associate Program Officer FEDERICO SAN MARTINI, Program Officer JOSÉ ZAMBRANA, Christine Mirzayan Graduate Fellow (June-August 2006) DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

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The Future of U.S. Chemistry Research: Benchmarks and Challenges BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY Chairpersons ELSA REICHMANIS, Alcatel-Lucent, Murray Hill, NJ F. FLEMING CRIM, University of Wisconsin, Madison Members PAUL T. ANASTAS, Yale University, New Haven, CT GARY S. CALABRESE, Rohm & Haas Company, Philadelphia, PA JEAN DE GRAEVE, Université de Liège, Belgium PABLO G. DEBENEDETTI, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ MILES P. DRAKE, Weyerhauser Company, Federal Way, WA GEORGE W. FLYNN, Columbia University, New York, NY MAURICIO FUTRAN, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New Brunswick, NJ PAULA T. HAMMOND, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ROBERT HWANG, Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM JAY V. IHLENFELD, 3M Research & Development, St. Paul, MN JAMES L. KINSEY, Rice University, Houston, TX MARTHA A. KREBS, California Energy Commission, Sacramento CHARLES T. KRESGE, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI SCOTT J. MILLER, Yale University, New Haven, CT GERALD V. POJE, Independent Consultant, Vienna, VA DONALD PROSNITZ, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA MATTHEW V. TIRRELL, University of California, Santa Barbara National Research Council Staff TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Program Officer KELA MASTERS, Project Assistant ERICKA M. MCGOWAN, Associate Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate JESSICA L. PULLEN, Research Assistant FEDERICO SAN MARTINI, Program Officer DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

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The Future of U.S. Chemistry Research: Benchmarks and Challenges Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Dr. Andreas Manz, ISAS—Institute for Analytical Sciences, Dortmund, Germany Dr. John M. Campbell, Sr., (Retired President and CEO, Campbell Companies), Norman, OK Dr. Catherine E. Costello, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA Dr. Miles P. Drake, Weyerhaeuser Company, Allentown, PA Dr. Erick M. Carreira, ETH Hönggerberg, Zürich, Switzerland Dr. Lloyd M. Robeson, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA Dr. Mark S. Wrighton, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO Dr. William A. Lester, Jr., University of California, Berkeley, CA Dr. Gordon Brown, Stanford University, Pasadena, CA

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The Future of U.S. Chemistry Research: Benchmarks and Challenges Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review was overseen by Dr. Maxine Savitz, retired, General Manager, Technology/Partnerships Honeywell Inc, appointed by the National Research Council and Dr. C. Bradley Moore, Northwestern University, appointed by the Division on Earth and Life Studies, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

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The Future of U.S. Chemistry Research: Benchmarks and Challenges Contents     Summary   1 1   Why Benchmark the Research Competitiveness of U.S. Chemistry Now?   7      The Rising Above the Gathering Storm Report,   7      Timeliness of Benchmarking Chemistry,   8      Panel Charge and Rationale,   9 2   Key Characteristics of U.S. Chemistry Research   13      What Is Chemistry Research?,   14      What Key Factors Characterize Chemistry Research?,   14      How Important Is It for the United States to Lead in Chemistry Research?,   16      What Are Some Caveats?,   19 3   Current Research Leadership Position   20      Approach,   20      Journal Article Contributions,   21      Journal Article Citations,   28      Other Measures of Leadership,   38      Assessment of Leadership in Specialized Areas of Chemistry,   40      Summary,   68

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The Future of U.S. Chemistry Research: Benchmarks and Challenges 4   Key Factors Influencing Leadership   70      National Imperatives,   70      Innovation,   71      Scientific Culture,   74      Centers and Major Facilities,   78      Human Resources,   84      R&D Funding,   96      Summary,   108      Appendix,   110 5   Likely Future Position: Increasing Challenges to U.S. Leadership in Chemistry   113      U.S. Leadership in Chemistry,   113      U.S. Leadership in Areas of Chemistry,   119      Summary,   123     Appendixes     A   Statement of Task   127 B   Panel Biographical Information   128 C   Journal Analysis   132 D   Virtual World Congress   137