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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness INTERNATIONAL BENCHMARKING OF U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness Panel on Benchmarking the Research Competitiveness of the US in Chemical Engineering Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CTS-0534814. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10537-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10537-4 Library of Congress Control Number 2007927597 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness PANEL ON BENCHMARKING THE RESEARCH COMPETITIVENESS OF THE US IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Chairperson GEORGE STEPHANOPOULOS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Members PIERRE AVENAS, ParisTech, Paris, France WILLIAM F. BANHOLZER, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI GARY S. CALABRESE, Rohm & Haas Company, Philadelphia, PA DOUGLAS S. CLARK, University of California, Berkeley, L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Arkema Inc. (Retired), Rosemont, PA ERIC W. KALER, University of Delaware, Newark JULIO M. OTTINO, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL NICHOLAS A. PEPPAS, University of Texas, Austin JOHN D. PERKINS, University of Manchester, United Kingdom JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM ADEL F. SAROFIM, University of Utah, Salt Lake City JACKIE Y. YING, Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Singapore National Research Council Staff TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Responsible Staff Officer ERICKA M. MCGOWAN, Associate Program Officer JESSICA L. PULLEN, Research Assistant DAVID RASMUSSEN, Senior Project Assistant FEDERICO SAN MARTINI, Program Officer DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY Chairpersons ELSA REICHMANIS, Alcatel-Lucent, Murray Hill, NJ F. FLEMING CRIM, University of Wisconsin, Madison Members PAUL T. ANASTAS, Yale University, New Haven, CT GARY S. CALABRESE, Rohm & Haas Company, Philadelphia, PA JEAN DE GRAEVE, Université de Liège, Belgium PABLO G. DEBENEDETTI, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ MILES P. DRAKE, Weyerhauser Company, Federal Way, WA GEORGE W. FLYNN, Columbia University, New York, NY MAURICIO FUTRAN, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New Brunswick, NJ PAULA T. HAMMOND, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ROBERT HWANG, Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM JAY V. IHLENFELD, 3M Research & Development, St. Paul, MN JAMES L. KINSEY, Rice University, Houston, TX MARTHA A. KREBS, California Energy Commission, Sacramento CHARLES T. KRESGE, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI SCOTT J. MILLER, Yale University, New Haven, CT GERALD V. POJE, Independent Consultant, Vienna, VA DONALD PROSNITZ, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA MATTHEW V. TIRRELL, University of California, Santa Barbara National Research Council Staff KATHRYN HUGHES, Postdoctoral Fellow TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Program Officer KELA MASTERS, Project Assistant ERICKA M. MCGOWAN, Associate Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate JESSICA L. PULLEN, Research Assistant FEDERICO SAN MARTINI, Associate Program Officer DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Dr. John M. Campbell, Sr., (Retired President and CEO, Campbell Companies), Norman, OK Dr. Thomas M. Connelly, Jr., E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, DE Dr. Susan Cozzens, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Dr. Pablo G. Debenedetti, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ Dr. Miles P. Drake, Weyerhaeuser Company, Federal Way, WA Dr. Glenn H. Fredrickson, University of California, Santa Barbara Dr. Lynn Gladden, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom Dr. Ignacio E. Grossmann, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA Dr. Buddy D. Ratner, University of Washington, Seattle Dr. James A. Trainham, PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review was overseen by Dr. Maxine Savitz, Retired General Manager of Technology/Partnerships, Honeywell Inc, and Dr. C. Bradley Moore, Northwestern University. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution.
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness Contents Executive Summary 1 Summary 5 1 Background 16 1.1 Chemical Engineering in Transition, 16 1.2 Study Charge and Panel Approach, 21 2 Chemical Engineering Research: Its Key Characteristics, Its Importance for the United States, and the Task of Benchmarking 24 2.1 What Is Chemical Engineering?, 24 2.2 Benchmarking U.S. Chemical Engineering Research, 31 3 Benchmarking Results: Assessment of U.S. Leadership in Chemical Engineering at Large 39 3.1 Virtual World Congress, 39 3.2 Journal Publications, 43 3.3 Patent Publication Analysis, 60 3.4 Prizes, Awards, and Recognitions, 64 3.5 Summary, 65 APPENDIX 3A: Experts Who Organized the Virtual World Congress by Nominating Its Keynote Speakers, 66 APPENDIX 3B: The List of Journals Examined for Publications and Citations, 73
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International Benchmarking of U.S. Chemical Engineering Research Competitiveness 4 Benchmarking Results: Detailed Assessment of U.S. Leadership by Area of Chemical Engineering 77 4.1 Area-1: Engineering Science of Physical Processes, 78 4.2 Area-2: Engineering Science of Chemical Processes, 96 4.3 Area-3: Engineering Science of Biological Processes, 109 4.4 Area-4: Molecular and Interfacial Science and Engineering, 117 4.5 Area-5: Materials, 120 4.6 Area-6: Biomedical Products and Biomaterials, 134 4.7 Area-7: Energy, 142 4.8 Area-8: Environmental Impact and Management, 151 4.9 Area-9: Process Systems Development and Engineering, 164 4.10 Summary, 177 5 Key Factors Influencing Leadership 182 5.1 Innovation, 183 5.2 Centers, Major Facilities, and Instrumentation, 187 5.3 Human Resources, 192 5.4 R&D Funding, 201 5.5 Projection of Leadership Determinants, 212 5.6 Summary and Conclusions, 218 APPENDIX 5A: NSF Research Proposal Funding Rate, 1997 to 2005, 220 6 Conclusions 224 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 231 B Panel Biographies 232