committee members’ collective experience as scholars and practitioners of assessments, and conducting some empirical analyses of selected case studies. The composition of the committee was such that it could draw from a broad range of experiences in various assessments. Besides representing many different scientific disciplines, committee members were selected to represent several major stakeholder groups: academia, decision makers, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. As instructed by the Statement of Task, the committee focused its analysis on assessments with goals similar to the CCSP’s. Despite the fact that this represents a relatively limited sample of assessments, the committee recognized the diversity of external and internal factors that can lead to success and the need to distinguish assessments based on their external conditions and goals when comparing and drawing conclusion regarding assessment design. Chapter 2 elaborates further on this distinction and provides a framework to illustrate the relevant factors in the assessments process, such as the context at the inception of the assessment, the conditions established at that time, and the design choices made within the conduct of an assessment. Chapter 3 reviews the scholarly literature on assessment processes to identify the key challenges in designing an effective assessment. It also draws some conclusions from the literature on what design choices increase the likelihood for an effective assessment. Based on the general framework provided in Chapter 2 and the key challenges identified in Chapter 3, the committee analyzes a selection of assessments in Chapter 4 and identifies the strengths and weaknesses in their approaches. Drawing from the literature review in Chapter 3, the analysis in Chapter 4, and Chapter 5 concludes with the committee’s overall findings and recommendations.