In contrast, assessments that focus on impacts or responses present greater challenges. In each case, achieving credibility and legitimacy requires involving a broader set of stakeholders, often with more specific interests and biases. Further, the assessment outcomes are much more likely to involve analyses that depend on assigning values; hence, it is more likely that they will generate a diversity of opinions that impact legitimacy and credibility. It is important that impacts and response assessments be designed in a manner that accepts the challenge of broadening the participation and the level of communication, while also recognizing that there is still much to be learned about how to conduct these types of assessments successfully.

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