TABLE 4.1 The Eight Assessments Included in the Comparative Analysis

Assessment

Brief Description

Stratospheric Ozone Assessments

Prior to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, there were several national (including NRC) and international assessments analyzing ozone-depleting chemicals and the state of the stratospheric ozone layer (e.g., WMO 1982, 1986a). Following the treaty, a system of expert advisory panels was established to periodically assess the atmospheric science of the ozone layer (WMO 1990a,b, 1992, 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007), the impacts of ozone loss (UNEP 1991a, 1994a, 1998a, 2002a), and the technology and economics of alternatives to ozone-depleting chemicals (UNEP 1991b, 1994b, 1998b, 2002b).

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

IPCC analyzes scientific and socioeconomic information on climate change and its impacts, and assesses options for mitigation and adaptation. It provides scientific, technological, and socioeconomic findings to the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (IPCC 1990a,b,c, 1995a,b,c, 2001a,b,c).

Global Biodiversity Assessment (GBA)

GBA provides a synthesis and analysis of available science on biodiversity to support the work of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (GBA 1995).

National Assessment of Climate Change Impacts (NACCI)

Undertaken in response to the Global Change Research Act (1990) to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the United States (NAST 2001).

Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA)

Primary objectives were to evaluate and synthesize knowledge and indicators of climate variability, climate change, and ultraviolet radiation in the region; to assess possible impacts of future changes in climate and radiation; and to provide reliable information to both governments and peoples of the region to support policy-making processes (ACIA 2004).

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)

MA was designed to answer questions fundamental to various UN conventions dealing with natural resource issues, in particular the consequences of diverse environmental changes on the functioning of ecosystems, including their continuing capacity to deliver services essential to human well-being (MA 2005a,b).

German Enquete Kommission on “Preventive Measures to Protect the Earth’s Atmosphere”

The Enquete Kommission brings scientists and policy makers together to assess the importance and consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change for Germany among other dimensions of global environmental change (Enquete Kommission, 1988, 1991).



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