Jeffrey P. Koplan, Vice President for Academic Health Affairs, Emory University

Alan I. Leshner, CEO and Executive Publisher of Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science

Bernard Lo, Professor of Medicine, Director, Program in Medical Ethics, University of California, San Francisco

Sharon R. Long, Steere-Pfizer Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University

Joyce Marcus, Robert L. Carneiro Distinguished University Professor of Anthropology, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan

Elliot M. Meyerowitz, George W. Beadle Professor and Chair, Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology

Elizabeth G. Nabel, Director, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health

Matthew C. Nisbet, Professor of Communications, School of Communication, American University

Gordon H. Orians, Professor Emeritus, Department of Biology, University of Washington

Philip A. Pizzo, Dean, Carl and Elizabeth Naumann Professor of Pediatrics and of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine

David J. Policansky, Scholar, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Research Council

Stanley B. Prusiner, Professor of Neurology and Director, Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of California, San Francisco

Stephen J. Ryan, President, Doheny Eye Institute

Judith G. Scotchmoor, Director of Education and Public Programs, University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, CA

Eugenie C. Scott, Executive Director, National Center for Science Education, Inc., Oakland, CA

Edward H. Shortliffe, Dean of the Faculty, The University of Arizona College of Medicine–Phoenix

John R. Staver, Professor and Co-Director, Center for Research and Engagement in Science and Mathematics, Purdue University

Judith L. Swain, Lien Ying Chow Professor of Medicine, National University of Singapore and Founding Executive Director of Singapore Institute of Clinical Sciences and Adjunct Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Diego

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author(s) and the councils of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine (see page vi).

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