In addition to encouraging and supporting instructional practices that are complex and require a high degree of skill and knowledge on the part of teachers, we draw in science assessment, professional development, and school administration as essential pieces to meaningful improvement in science education. The many teachers who are struggling to do their work well, but in isolation, should interpret their struggles in light of this. For teachers like Ms. Fredericks and her contemporaries, who often work without sufficient systems of support, this book will not solve every problem but may offer some help in the science classroom, both in the short term and for the future.

For Further Reading

Bazerman, C. (1988). Shaping written knowledge: The genre and activity of the experimental article in science. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Brewer, W.F., and Samarapungavan, A. (1991). Children’s theories vs. scientific theories: Differences in reasoning or differences in knowledge. In R.R. Hoffman and D.S. Palermo (Eds.), Cognition and the symbolic processes (pp. 209-232). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Giere, R.N. (1996). The scientist as adult. Philosophy of Science, 63, 538-541.

Harris, P.L. (1994). Thinking by children and scientists: False analogies and neglected similarities. In L.A. Hirschfeld and S.A. Gelman (Eds.), Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture (pp. 294-315). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

National Research Council. (2007). Goals for science education. Chapter 2 in Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade, Taking science to school: Learning and teaching science in grades K-8 (pp. 26-50). R.A. Duschl, H.A. Schweingruber, and A.W. Shouse (Eds.). Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Nersessian, N.J. (2005). Interpreting scientific and engineering practices: Integrating the cognitive, social, and cultural dimensions. In M. Gorman, R. Tweney, D. Gooding, and A. Kincannon (Eds.), Scientific and technological thinking (pp. 17-56). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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