3 This case is based on the work of teacher Gina Lally, in collaboration with researchers Suzanne Chapin and Cathy O’Connor. For more detail on establishing norms for productive class discussions, see Chapin, S., O’Connor, C., and Anderson, N. (2003). Classroom discussions: Using math talk to help students learn. Grades 1-6. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.


4 This section draws heavily on text from the “Accountable Talk: Classroom Conservation That Works,” e-book chapter “Equity and Access,” by Cathy O’Connor, Sarah Michaels, and Lauren Resnick. For more information, visit http://www.instituteforlearning.org.


5 Lipka, J. (1998). Expanding curricular and pedagogical possibilities: Yup’ik-based mathematics, science, and literacy. In J. Lipka with G.V. Mohatt and the Ciulistet Group (Eds.), Transforming the culture of schools: Yup’ik Eskimo examples. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


6 Au, K.H. (1980). Participation structures in a reading lesson with Hawaiian children: Analysis of a culturally appropriate instructional event. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 11(2), 91-115. See also: Tharp, R., and Gallimore, R. (1989). Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning, and schooling social context. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.


7 Lee, C.D. (2001). Is October Brown Chinese? A cultural modeling activity system for underachieving students. American Educational Research Journal, 38(1), 97-141.


8 Lee, O. (2002). Science inquiry for elementary students from diverse backgrounds. In W. Secada (Ed.), Review of research in education (pp. 23-69). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.


9 Warren, B., Ballenger, C., Ogonowski, M., Rosebery, A.S., and Hudicourt-Barnes, J. (2001). Rethinking diversity in learning science: The logic of everyday sense-making. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(5), 529-552.


10 Hudicourt-Barnes, J. (2003). The use of argumentation in Haitian Creole science classrooms. Harvard Educational Review, 73(1), 73-93.


11 This case highlights the work of teacher researcher Judith Richard and is based on videotapes and verbatim transcripts from her class. The names of the teacher and students are pseudonyms. For more information, see Michaels, S., O’Connor, M.C., and Richards, J. (1994). Literacy as reasoning within multiple discourses: Implications for policy and educational reform. In Proceedings of the Council of Chief State School Officers 1990 Summer Institute on Restructuring Learning (pp. 107-121). Washington, DC: Chief State School Officers.

Chapter 6


1 Lehrer, R., and Schauble, L. (2006). Scientific thinking and science literacy. In W. Damon, R. Lerner, K.A. Renninger, and I.E. Sigel (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology, 6th edition (vol. 4). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.


2 Wisconsin Fast Plants is a popular curriculum tool that uses a small, hardy, fast-growing plant species bred by Paul Williams of the University of Wisconsin–Madison for use in educational settings.


3 Lehrer, R., and Schauble, L. (2004). Modeling natural variation through distribution. American Education Research Journal, 41(3), 635-679. Reproduced with permission from the publisher.

Chapter 7


1 Reiser, B.J., Tabak, I., Sandoval, W.A., Smith, B.K., Steinmuller, F., and Leone, A.J. (2001). BGuILE: Strategic and conceptual scaffolds for scientific inquiry in biology classrooms. In S.M.

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