Carver and D. Klahr (Eds.), Cognition and instruction: Twenty-five years of progress (pp. 263-305). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


2 Krajcik, J., and Reiser, B.J. (2004). IQWST: Investigating and questioning our world through science and technology. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University.


3 Palincsar, A.S., and Brown, A.L. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1, 117-175.


4 This case is based on a composite of classroom examples adapted from the research of Carol Smith and colleagues and Leslie Rupert Herrenkhol and colleagues. For more details, see: Smith, C., Snir, J., and Grosslight, L. (1992). Using conceptual models to facilitate conceptual change: The case of weight-density differentiation. Cognition and Instruction, 9, 221-283; Herrenkhol, L.R., Palincsar, A.S., DeWater, L.S., and Kawaki, K. (1999). Developing scientific communities in classrooms: A sociocognitive approach. Journal of the Learning Science, 8(3,4), 451-493; Herrenkhol, L.R., and Guerra, M.R. (1998). Participants, structures, scientific discourse, and student engagement in fourth grade. Cognition and Instruction, 16, 433-475.


5 This vignette is taken from Hennessey, M.G., and Beeth, M.E. (1993). Students’ reflective thoughts about science content: A relationship to conceptual change learning. Paper presented at the Symposium on Metacognition and Conceptual Change at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Atlanta, April 1993). Available from the Education Resources Information Center (ED407271).


6 Smith, C.L., Maclin, D., Houghton, C., and Hennessey, M.G. (2000). Sixth-grade students’ epistemologies of science: The impact of school science experiences on epistemological development. Cognition and Instruction, 18, 349-422.

Chapter 8


1 Newmann, F.M., Smith, B., Allensworth, E., and Bryk, A. (2001). Instructional program coherence: What it is and why it should guide school improvement policy. Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 23(4), 297-321.


2 Banilower, E.R., Boyd, S.E., Pasley, J.D., and Weiss, I.R. (2006). The LSC capstone report: Lessons from a decade of mathematics and science reform. Chapel Hill, NC: Horizon Research.


3 Windshitl, M. (2004). Folk theories of “inquiry”: How preservice teachers reproduce the discourse and practices of the scientific method. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41, 481-512.


4 Stoddart, T., Pinal, A., Latzke, M., and Canaday, D. (2002). Integrating inquiry science and language development for English language learners. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(8), 664-687.


5 Hart, J.E., and Lee, O. (2003). Teacher professional development to improve the science and literacy achievement of English language learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 27(3), 357-383.


6 Amaral, O., Garrison, L., and Klentschy, M. (2002). Helping English learners increase achievement through inquiry-based science instruction. Bilingual Research Journal, 26(2), 213-239.


7 Kahle, J., Meece, J., and Scantlebury, K. (2000). Urban African-American middle school science students: Does standards-based teaching make a difference? Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(9), 1019-1041.

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