• The ability to communicate clearly and precisely is a hallmark of mature scientific reasoning. Classroom talk provides a context for the socialization of students into this practice.

  • Classroom discussion may provide motivation by enabling students to become affiliated with their peers’ claims and positions.

For Further Reading

Brice-Heath, S. (1983). Ways with words: Language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. New York: McGraw-Hill; Oxford University Press.

Cazden, C. (2001). Classroom discourse: The language of teaching and learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Lemke, J.L. (1990). Talking science: Language, learning, and values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Michaels, S., and Sohmer, R. (2001). Discourses that promote new academic identities. In D. Li (Ed.), Discourses in search of members (pp. 171-219). New York: University Press of America.

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