Index

A

Accountable Talk in Math and Science Project, 167

Activities. See Classroom investigations

Adelson, Glenn, 167

Administrators, 16, 162-163

African Americans, 99

Air

as matter, 42

properties of, 45-54, 72-75

Altimeter, 26, 30

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 59

Argument

ambiguity in language and, 93

as collaboration, 87

cultural diversity in, 97-100

discomfort of educators with, 92-93, 165

encouraging, 92-93, 165-166

forms of, 88-89

goals of, 89

learning through, 15, 32, 33, 68, 88-89

mediating, 93

norms for presenting, 21, 89, 92, 95-96, 136, 165-166

Assessments.

See also State Assessments

for atomic-molecular theory learning progression, 176-178

statutory requirement, 2

supporting science learning, 16, 35, 151

Atomic-molecular theory of matter

assessment items, 176-178

conceptual change in understanding, 43, 45-56

core concepts in, 72, 76, 128

design of learning progression, 64-65, 151

language of science in, 65

learning progressions, 43, 44, 45-54, 59, 66-69, 72-75, 84-85

Molecules in Motion activity (grade 7), 45-54

multidisciplinary nature of, 60, 84

Mystery Box activity (grades K-2), 61, 65, 66-69

Nature of Gases activity (grades 6-8), 79-83, 168

Properties of Air activity (grades 3-5), 72-75

Autism, 95

B

Behavior of students, 1, 23, 31, 95-96

Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 18, 62-63, 153

Biodiversity activity, 128, 151

case study, 22-27

ecosystem balance, 128-129

modeling species variability, 119-124

proficiency strands, 28-34

Biodiversity in a City Schoolyard, 22-27, 112, 119-124

Biology

atomic-molecular theory and, 60

conceptual change in, 42, 43

curriculum tools, 114, 116, 119-124, 169

growth representation, 114-124

naïve understanding of, 28-29, 38, 42

reasoning skills of young children, 39

Struggle for Survival unit, 130-131

Biology Guided Inquiry Learning Environment (BGuiLE), 130, 132-133



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C Classroom norms for discussion, 11-12, 15, 95-96 Case studies. See also Classroom investigations for presenting arguments, 21, 89, 92, 95-96, 136, questions for practitioners, 171-175 165-166 Categorization. See also Classification for scientific practice, 14, 15, 136 assessment task, 176 Cognitive skills of data, 112 children’s capabilities, 6-8, 15, 28-29, 37-41, 149, skills of young children, 25, 26, 29, 39, 69 155-156 Catron, Susan, 167 linguistic abilities, 97-98 Cell theory, 59 misconceptions about, 8, 155-156 Chèche Konnen research program, 101 Communication of ideas. See also Argument; Chemistry, 38, 60, 76. See also Atomic-molecular Representation; Talk theory of matter cultural differences, 4, 97-100 Classification importance, 87 biological, 23, 26-27, 30 public speaking, 101 models, 23 Conceptual change of objects, 69, 70, 176 in knowledge structure, 41, 147 Classroom investigations in levels of explanation, 44, 50-54, 76-77 Biodiversity in a City Schoolyard, 22-27, 112, in Molecules in Motion, 45-56 119-124 in networks of concepts, 42-43, 46-50, 55 biological growth, 110-111, 114-124 in preexisting concepts, 42, 43-44, 45, 46-47, 55, constructing and defending explanations, 19, 67 95-96, 132-135 in representations, 114-118 creating meaningful problems, 127-129 teaching for, 137 cultural considerations in, 74, 104-106 types, 42-43 empirical, 8, 9-13, 69, 70 Constant units, 10, 12, 111 follow-up and extension activities, 1, 10, 31, 70-71 Content. See Core concepts; Curriculum content; graphing, 11, 112 Proficiency strands “just in time” approach, 129-130, 131 Core concepts. See also Conceptual change lever and fulcrum, 128 effectiveness of, 78 mass and density, 137-140 examples, 59, 128 measurement activities, 8, 9-13, 69, 70, 72-75, implementation over time, 60-61, 63-65, 85, 112 130-131, 165 metacognition, 142-146 importance, 57, 84-85 Molecules in Motion, 45-54 intermediate ideas, 61, 64 Mystery Box, 66-71 interrelatedness, 57, 59-60 Nature of Gases (grades 6-8), 79-83 in learning progressions, 55-56, 59, 60, 63-65, norms for discussion, 95-96 72-73, 76, 84-85, 151 practical or applied problems, 128 research needs, 63 Properties of Air, 72-75 standards and benchmarks and, 61, 62-63 representing data, 23, 110-111, 114-124 support system for, 61 scripting roles in, 137-140 young children’s understanding of, 12 sequencing instruction for, 129-131 Cultural, linguistic, and experiential considerations, 4. Struggle for Survival, 130-131, 132 See also English language learners theoretical problems, 128 appreciating, 97-100 weighing and balancing activities, 70, 73-74, in argument and talk, 97-100 104-105, 112 188 Ready, Set, SCIENCE!

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inclusiveness strategies, 10, 23-27, 66-67, norm setting for, 11, 15, 46-47, 69, 77-78, 95-96, 100-106 97, 100, 165 professional development opportunities, 160-161 piggybacking questions, 100-101 Curriculum content, 57. See also Core concepts position-driven, 30, 31, 40, 93-94, 141 AAAS themes, 59 promoting, 52, 138-139, 141 breadth and depth of, 62, 85, 150 rules of participation, 100-101, 135-137 “final form science,” 132 shared inquiry, 94 inquiry-based, 34 small-group, 47, 91, 95, 98 international comparisons, 62, 161 teacher’s role, 94, 95, 165 national standards and benchmarks, 3, 62-63 young children’s abilities, 40 organizational structure, 59-60, 150 whole-group, 24, 25, 31, 32, 33-34, 68-69, 71, planning and development, 152, 162-163 72-75, 93, 138-139 processes linked to, 17-19; see also Proficiency Domains of science, 4, 38-41 strands Curriculum specialists, 22, 35. See also Science E specialists Earthquakes, 5 Education system. See Science education system D design Data. See also Scientific evidence Electromagnetism, 4, 57 analysis, 4, 8, 11, 69, 130 English language learners, 9, 10, 23-24, 26, 29, collection, 4, 5, 8, 29-30, 32-33, 112, 130 74-75, 93, 85, 103, 104-106, 160-161 comparison, 13 Estimation, 13 defined, 5 Evidence. See Scientific evidence distribution of, 119-124 Evolutionary theory, 19, 23, 52, 57, 59, 128, 130-131 interpreting, 113, 115-116, 117 intervals in, 119-124 F from measurement, 8, 10, 11, 115 Facts, 5. See also Scientific evidence quality and reliability, 30, 32, 33, 115 Forces querying existing data sets, 112 balanced and unbalanced, 79-93 representation, 4, 8, 11, 111-113, 119-124 kinetic, 145, 146 sharing, 11, 25, 31-32, 101, 138 Foundational knowledge. See also Core concepts statistical measures, 113 building student motivation on, 130-131 structuring, 112 common elements of, 38-41 typical values, 119-124 conceptual understanding, 42 understanding construction of, 111-112 domain-specific reasoning, 38-39 Davis Foundation, 167 misconceptions in, 40, 43-44, 46-47 Density, 42, 57, 76, 137-140 of modeling, 39-40 Discussion, 6. See also Argument; Talk naïve knowledge of science, 38-39, 46 brainstorming, 71 proficiency strands in, 40 building environment for, 107, 165 self-correction, 44 claim-evidence-reasoning framework, 135-137 cross-talk, 30, 31, 33 cultural diversity and, 9, 10, 94, 95, 97-103 G framing questions, 94, 101 Galapagos Islands, 130-131 importance, 40, 78, 106-107 Gases, 45-54, 76, 79-83 inclusiveness strategies, 74-75, 100-103 Geology, 60 189 Index

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Goldenada, Marianne, 151-153 misconceptions as stepping stones, 7, 43-44 Grades K-2 motivating students, 26, 128-129, 130-131 atomic-molecular theory (Mystery Box), 61, 65, proficiency strands applied in, 28-32, 34-35, 66-69, 176-177 45-56 biodiversity investigation, 22-27 reciprocal approach, 136 cognitive capabilities of children, 6-8 scaffolding, 129 growth investigation, 115 scripting student roles, 11-12, 100, 135-145 measurement classes, 8, 9-10 sequencing instruction, 129-131 representations, 114, 115 standards based, 161 Grades 3-5 supervision of, 35 atomic-molecular theory, 72-75, 177-178 Investigating and Questioning Our World through balance experiment, 104-105 Science and Technology (IQWST), 132-133 biodiversity investigation, 22-27 Investigations. See Classroom investigations growth investigation, 116-117 Investigators Club, 79-83, 167, 168 representations, 110, 114, 117, 118, 119-124 Iteration, 12 Grades 6-8 atomic-molecular theory, 45-54, 76-83, 178 K IQWST units, 132-133 Kamehameha Early Education Project, 98 state assessments, 1 Kindergarten. See Grades K-2 shifts in understanding, 142-145 Graphing data, 11, 32, 33, 72, 110-111, 112, 114, 115, 118 L Gravity, 56, 75, 145 Language of science, 4-6, 61, 65, 88, 97, 168 Learning progressions assessments for, 176-178 H in atomic-molecular theory, 45-54, 64-65, 66-69, Haitian Creole students, 101, 104-106 72-78, 176-178 Hypotheses and hypothesizing, 4, 5, 69 benefits, 63-64 from core concepts, 26, 60, 63-65, 76, 84-85, 151 I development, 84-85 Ideal gas law, 79-83 effectiveness, 85 Individualized education plans, 95 implementation, 84-85 Induction, 39 importance, 14, 84-85 Infants, reasoning skills, 39 macro-level processes linked to micro-level Inquiry, 34 phenomena, 65, 76-77, 78 in modeling, 114-118 Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards, 153 over multiple years, 14-15, 56-57, 63-65, 150 Instructional practices from prior knowledge, 7, 8, 39-40, 55-56, 63, 77 approaches and strategies, 9-10, 41, 52 proficiency strands in, 64 conceptual change, 41, 137 short-term extensions, 70-71, 85 constructing and defending explanations, 47-48, Lee, Okhee, 100 132-135, 137 Lehrer, Richard, 114, 118, 167 creating meaningful problems, 127-129, 156-157 inclusiveness strategies, 10, 23-27, 66-67, 100-106 M inquiry, 34, 154, 161 Mass, 75, 137-140, 168 instructional congruence, 100 Mathematics, 8, 12, 23, 26, 40, 110-111 190 Ready, Set, SCIENCE!

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N Matter, phases, 42. See also Atomic-molecular theory of matter National Science Education Standards, 18, 19, 62-63, Means, 113, 119 153 Measurement, 5 National Science Foundation, 84, 150, 158, appropriate units, 12, 111 160-161 boundary-filling conception, 111 National Science Teachers Association, 159 conventions, 12 Natural selection, 19, 130-131 error, 26, 113 Nature of Gases (grades 6-8), 79-83 fractional units, 72 Newtonian mechanics, 4, 59 identical units, 12 No Child Left Behind Act, 2 iteration, 12 Norms. See Classroom norms key principles, 12 Northwestern University, 130-131 science classes, 8, 9-13, 25, 72-75 standard methods, 9, 12, 70, 115 O theory, 111 Observation, 5, 69, 72-75, 98, 112 Memorization of facts, 19, 46, 65, 72 Michigan State University, 158 Modeling Nature Project, 167 P Models/modeling, 4, 5, 6 Pan balance, 70, 73-74, 112 accuracy of representation, 110, 113-114 Parental roles in science education, 7 advantages and limitations, 80 Pattern recognition, 28-29, 116-117, 118 Air Puppies model of ideal gas law, 79-83, 109, Physics 110 atomic-molecular theory, 60 Archimedes software, 137 naïve knowledge and reasoning skills, 38, 39 data, 111-113 network of knowledge, 42-43 diagrams, 79-83, 109, 110, 113, 114 PI-CRUST (Promoting Inquiry Communities for the forms of, 109-110 Reform of Urban Science Teaching), 158-159 foundational knowledge, 39-40 Plant growth, 110-111 graphs, 11, 32, 33, 72, 110-111, 112, 114, 115, Plate tectonics, 5 119-124 Preschoolers intervals in data, 119-124 modeling skills, 40, 113 and learning progressions, 40, 77, 114-118 reasoning skills, 39 light motion, 129 Pressure of air, 45-54 maps, 25-26, 33, 114 Professional development, 16 mathematical, 23, 40 for teaching diverse student populations, 160-161 metacognitive understanding, 14, 78, 88, 113, informal networks, 35 114, 129, 130, 142-146 opportunities for, 35, 157-162 Modeling with Dots software, 137, 138 proficiency strands in, 154, 163 pretend play as, 39 resources for, 164 proficiency strands in, 125 school-level, 151-153, 157 scale models, 113-114 staff, 163-164 shifts in understanding, 114-118 Proficiency strands. See also Learning progressions typical values, 119-124 benchmarks and standards and, 19 Molecules in Motion, 45-54 case study, 21, 22-32 Mystery Box, 66-71 as content–process linkage, 17-19, 34-35, 129 191 Index

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generating evidence (strand 2), 8, 14, 19-20, 29-30, administrators, 16, 162-163 32-33, 35, 111, 112, 117, 124, 127, 154 assessment, 16, 57, 151 instruction approaches, 28-32, 150 building the system, 15-16, 61, 107, 162-163 interrelated nature of, 18, 32-34, 45, 149 change initiatives, 150 in modeling data, 124 curriculum development, 57, 150, 152-153, 164 in naïve knowledge, 37-38, 40 instructional practices, 150 participating productively (strand 4), 21, 31-32, knowledge about learning and, 150-151 33-34, 124, 129, 154 professional development, 16, 61, 71, 151, reflecting on scientific knowledge (strand 3), 14, 152-153, 163-164 20, 28, 30, 32, 33-34, 88, 92, 124, 125, 127, proficiency strands and, 35 128, 129, 130, 133, 136, 142-145, 146, 147, science specialists, 161-162 154 standards and, 150, 161 standards and benchmarks and, 63 Science learning. See also Learning progressions; teacher learning patterns, 154 Proficiency strands understanding explanations (strand 1), 19, 28-29, beliefs about young children, 155-156 33, 124, 142-145, 154 framework for, 17-18, 150 Properties of Air, 72-75 Science specialists, 161-162, 164 Psychology, naïve knowledge of, 38 Scientific claims, 5, 10, 14 Pythagorean theorem, 26, 32 Scientific evidence, 4. See also Data defined, 5 empirical, 69 R generating, 4, 12-13, 14, 19-20, 29-30 Ratios, 53, 76, 113, 117 instruction approach, 29-30 Reasoning skills, 6, 7, 9-10 negative, 68 deductive, 69 observational, 5, 69, 72-75 domain specific, 38-39 presenting, 14 inference, 68, 75 reflecting on, 33 mathematical, 105 Scientific knowledge Representation, 6. See also Argument; Models/model- concept-based, 41; see also Conceptual change ing; Talk construction of, 80 biodiversity activity, 119-124 “doing” science and, 18, 20, 46, 127, 132 coordinate systems, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 124 domains, 38-41, 45 data, 111-113, 119-124 fact learning, 41, 46, 50-51, 55 development of, 118, 119-124 importance, 2 grades K-2, 11, 115-116 instruction approach, 30, 41 grades 3-5, 110, 114, 117, 118, 119-124 misconceptions, 43-44, 46-47 importance, 87, 109, 125-126 reflecting on, 2, 20, 30, 142-146 mathematical, 8, 12, 23, 104, 110-111, 114 structure of, 41 shifts in understanding, 33, 117-118 Scientific methods, 3, 4, 15 S-shaped logistic curve, 116, 118 Scientific practice as thinking tools, 77, 109, 125-126 classroom norms, 14, 69 Reproducible results, 10 collective decisionmaking, 6, 8, 9-10, 11-13, 14 concepts integrated with, 62-63, 72-75 effective classrooms, 6, 14, 135-136 S evidence and, 19 Schauble, Leona, 114, 118, 167 inquiry component, 34 Science education system design. See also Teachers 192 Ready, Set, SCIENCE!

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instruction approach, 9-13, 31-32, 34-35 encouraging, 89-92 norms for, 14, 15, 21 equitable participation, 102, 103 productive participation, 6, 21, 31-32 exploratory (first-draft thinking), 102-103, 165 proficiency strands and, 18, 19-20, 31-32, 62 importance, 2, 91-92, 179-180 “science as practice” perspective, 6, 34-35 I-R-E sequence, 89-90, 107 social context, 21, 34, 132, 137 learning through, 31-32, 88-89 by young children, 8, 9-14, 33-34 moves, 15, 90-91 Scientific understanding. See also Scientific knowledge partner talk, 47-48, 91 building on existing knowledge, 7, 8, 10, 14-15, and proficiency strands, 90 26, 32, 56-57, 60-61, 152 reviewing prior knowledge, 90 children’s capacity for, 6-8, 28-29, 37-41, 149 student presentations, 91 contexts of meaning, 41; see also Conceptual teacher initiated questions, 9, 11, 50, 53, 90, 105 change thinking or wait time, 49, 52, 73-74, 90, 91, demonstrating proficiency, 19 101-102 instruction approach, 28-29, 45-54 turn-taking format, 66-67, 74, 89-90, 102, metacognitive, 78, 142-146 104-105 naïve knowledge, 38-41 Teachers. See also Professional development nonschool influences, 7 folk view of science, 154 self-correction, 44 implementing changes, 164-166 shifts in, 6, 20, 29, 30, 76, 117-118, 142-145 informal networks, 35 Scientists knowledge of science, 4, 8, 27-28, 57, 61, 71, contributions, 2 153-155 intellectual practices, 138 as learners, 23, 27, 151-153 real-world practices, 4, 6, 25, 136 negative judgments of cultural differences, 99-100, as a social network, 2, 4, 132 166 stereotype, 3 opportunities to learn, 23, 35, 151, 157-162 students as, 6, 15 pedagogical considerations, 71, 94, 107, 147, women and minorities, 4 156-157, 168 Selecting Instructional Materials, 153 peer and administrative support, 151-153, 157 Sohmer, Richard, 79-83, 167 supporting proficiency strands, 35 Solar system models, 113-114 understanding how students learn, 15, 84, Solubility, 57 155-156, 157 Sound unit, 159 Teaching science well. See also Instructional practices Spencer Foundation, 167, 168 building on existing knowledge, 7, 8, 10, 14-15 Standards and benchmarks, 3, 19, 151 effective science classrooms, 6, 87 limitations of, 62-63 following up on experiments, 1 recommended revisions, 150 importance, 2-3, 166 State assessments, 1, 22 knowledge of subject matter and, 8, 57 State standards and curriculum frameworks, 3, 151 language and, 88 Statistical measures, 113 next steps for practitioners, 164-166 Struggle for Survival, 130-131, 132 questions for practitioners, 171-175 System. See Science education system design representation of data, 125-126 scientific terminology, 4-6 standards and benchmarks, 3, 151 T state testing and, 1 Talk, academically productive. See also Argument; time constraints and, 1, 45-46 Discussion 193 Index

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V Temperature, 44, 57, 76 Theories/theorizing, 136 Vanderbilt University, 167 advanced, 77 Volume, 70, 72 creating meaningful problems, 128 defined, 4-5, 88 W generating scientific evidence, 19, 25-26, 67, Water displacement cup, 70 74-75 Weight and weighing experiments, 42, 57, 70, 72-75, naïve, 37, 44, 167 113, 168 position driven discussions, 73-75, 93-94, Wellesley College, 167 139-140, 141 Williams, Paul, 169 Thermodynamics, 4, 57, 82 Windshitl, Mark, 154 Thinking critically Wisconsin Fast Plants, 114, 116, 119-124, 169 introspection, 144 Writing and publishing research, 83, 138 science and, 2 understanding students’ abilities, 15, 142-145 Third International Mathematics and Science Study, Y 62 Yup’ik, 98 Tiling, 12, 111 Tobacco hornworm growth, 117, 118 Z Trash and recycling unit, 159-160 Zero point, 12 U Understanding science. See Scientific understanding Units of measure, 12 University of Wisconsin–Madison, 169 194 Ready, Set, SCIENCE!

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Acknowledgments Ready, Set, Science! is the result of a shared vision and commitment among a remarkable assemblage of talented people. Countless hours of individual and col- laborative work and a strong commitment to creating a quality resource for sci- ence education practitioners moved this volume from a vision to a reality. This book would not have been possible without the sponsorship of the Merck Institute for Science Education. The ongoing support of its executive director, Carlo Parravano, has been essential to the project. We are grateful for our early conversa- tions with Carlo about the importance of a practitioner volume, as well as for his continuing belief in this book at each project stage. We are also grateful for a skillful team of project consultants who served as writers, advisers, and editorial consul- tants. Freelance science writer Steve Olson translated sections of the parent report, Taking Science to School, and contributed to early drafts and revisions. We want to thank Steve for attending meetings of the NRC Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade, as an observer to ensure fidelity between Ready, Set, Science! and the findings and recommendations of this committee’s report. We want to recognize Betsy Melodia-Sawyer, a freelance editor, who came to this project in the role of a developmental editor. Her work has been outstanding. It not only guided but also energized and clarified the final rounds of editing the book. We want to acknowledge Kevin Crowley from the University of Pittsburgh and Brian Reiser from Northwestern University, who were project liaisons from the Committee on Science Learning and reviewed several drafts. A third committee member, Leona Schauble of Vanderbilt University, carefully reviewed many drafts and worked closely with staff and consultants. We are very grateful for the gener- ous commitment of time and remarkable expertise she brought to this project. Sister Mary Gertrude Hennessey, then an elementary school principal and K-5 sci- ence teacher in Stoughton, Wisconsin, and Deborah Smith, a second-grade teacher 195 Acknowledgments