C

Case studies.

See also Classroom investigations

questions for practitioners, 171-175

Categorization.

See also Classification

assessment task, 176

of data, 112

skills of young children, 25, 26, 29, 39, 69

Catron, Susan, 167

Cell theory, 59

Chèche Konnen research program, 101

Chemistry, 38, 60, 76.

See also Atomic-molecular theory of matter

Classification

biological, 23, 26-27, 30

models, 23

of objects, 69, 70, 176

Classroom investigations

Biodiversity in a City Schoolyard, 22-27, 112, 119-124

biological growth, 110-111, 114-124

constructing and defending explanations, 19, 95-96, 132-135

creating meaningful problems, 127-129

cultural considerations in, 74, 104-106

empirical, 8, 9-13, 69, 70

follow-up and extension activities, 1, 10, 31, 70-71

graphing, 11, 112

“just in time” approach, 129-130, 131

lever and fulcrum, 128

mass and density, 137-140

measurement activities, 8, 9-13, 69, 70, 72-75, 112

metacognition, 142-146

Molecules in Motion, 45-54

Mystery Box, 66-71

Nature of Gases (grades 6-8), 79-83

norms for discussion, 95-96

practical or applied problems, 128

Properties of Air, 72-75

representing data, 23, 110-111, 114-124

scripting roles in, 137-140

sequencing instruction for, 129-131

Struggle for Survival, 130-131, 132

theoretical problems, 128

weighing and balancing activities, 70, 73-74, 104-105, 112

Classroom norms

for discussion, 11-12, 15, 95-96

for presenting arguments, 21, 89, 92, 95-96, 136, 165-166

for scientific practice, 14, 15, 136

Cognitive skills

children’s capabilities, 6-8, 15, 28-29, 37-41, 149, 155-156

linguistic abilities, 97-98

misconceptions about, 8, 155-156

Communication of ideas.

See also Argument;

Representation;

Talk

cultural differences, 4, 97-100

importance, 87

public speaking, 101

Conceptual change

in knowledge structure, 41, 147

in levels of explanation, 44, 50-54, 76-77

in Molecules in Motion, 45-56

in networks of concepts, 42-43, 46-50, 55

in preexisting concepts, 42, 43-44, 45, 46-47, 55, 67

in representations, 114-118

teaching for, 137

types, 42-43

Constant units, 10, 12, 111

Content. See Core concepts;

Curriculum content;

Proficiency strands

Core concepts.

See also Conceptual change

effectiveness of, 78

examples, 59, 128

implementation over time, 60-61, 63-65, 85, 130-131, 165

importance, 57, 84-85

intermediate ideas, 61, 64

interrelatedness, 57, 59-60

in learning progressions, 55-56, 59, 60, 63-65, 72-73, 76, 84-85, 151

research needs, 63

standards and benchmarks and, 61, 62-63

support system for, 61

young children’s understanding of, 12

Cultural, linguistic, and experiential considerations, 4.

See also English language learners

appreciating, 97-100

in argument and talk, 97-100



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