instruction approach, 9-13, 31-32, 34-35

norms for, 14, 15, 21

productive participation, 6, 21, 31-32

proficiency strands and, 18, 19-20, 31-32, 62

“science as practice” perspective, 6, 34-35

social context, 21, 34, 132, 137

by young children, 8, 9-14, 33-34

Scientific understanding.

See also Scientific knowledge

building on existing knowledge, 7, 8, 10, 14-15, 26, 32, 56-57, 60-61, 152

children’s capacity for, 6-8, 28-29, 37-41, 149

contexts of meaning, 41;

see also Conceptual change

demonstrating proficiency, 19

instruction approach, 28-29, 45-54

metacognitive, 78, 142-146

naïve knowledge, 38-41

nonschool influences, 7

self-correction, 44

shifts in, 6, 20, 29, 30, 76, 117-118, 142-145

Scientists

contributions, 2

intellectual practices, 138

real-world practices, 4, 6, 25, 136

as a social network, 2, 4, 132

stereotype, 3

students as, 6, 15

women and minorities, 4

Selecting Instructional Materials, 153

Sohmer, Richard, 79-83, 167

Solar system models, 113-114

Solubility, 57

Sound unit, 159

Spencer Foundation, 167, 168

Standards and benchmarks, 3, 19, 151

limitations of, 62-63

recommended revisions, 150

State assessments, 1, 22

State standards and curriculum frameworks, 3, 151

Statistical measures, 113

Struggle for Survival, 130-131, 132

System. See Science education system design

T

Talk, academically productive.

See also Argument;

Discussion

encouraging, 89-92

equitable participation, 102, 103

exploratory (first-draft thinking), 102-103, 165

importance, 2, 91-92, 179-180

I-R-E sequence, 89-90, 107

learning through, 31-32, 88-89

moves, 15, 90-91

partner talk, 47-48, 91

and proficiency strands, 90

reviewing prior knowledge, 90

student presentations, 91

teacher initiated questions, 9, 11, 50, 53, 90, 105

thinking or wait time, 49, 52, 73-74, 90, 91, 101-102

turn-taking format, 66-67, 74, 89-90, 102, 104-105

Teachers.

See also Professional development

folk view of science, 154

implementing changes, 164-166

informal networks, 35

knowledge of science, 4, 8, 27-28, 57, 61, 71, 153-155

as learners, 23, 27, 151-153

negative judgments of cultural differences, 99-100, 166

opportunities to learn, 23, 35, 151, 157-162

pedagogical considerations, 71, 94, 107, 147, 156-157, 168

peer and administrative support, 151-153, 157

supporting proficiency strands, 35

understanding how students learn, 15, 84, 155-156, 157

Teaching science well.

See also Instructional practices

building on existing knowledge, 7, 8, 10, 14-15

effective science classrooms, 6, 87

following up on experiments, 1

importance, 2-3, 166

knowledge of subject matter and, 8, 57

language and, 88

next steps for practitioners, 164-166

questions for practitioners, 171-175

representation of data, 125-126

scientific terminology, 4-6

standards and benchmarks, 3, 151

state testing and, 1

time constraints and, 1, 45-46



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