Explanation of Terms in Figure 6.1
Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA): A specially designated area that provides protection for outstanding environmental, scientific, historic, or aesthetic values or for ongoing or proposed scientific research. Each area has a management plan that provides the details of what actions can and cannot be undertaken in the area. All entry to ASPAs is by permit only issued by individual parties on application.
Antarctic Treaty: Provides governance via the annual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCMs) at which the ATCM Plenary makes the final decision on recommendations from its constituents’ working groups and committees.
Antarctic Treaty Secretariat: Supports the treaty between sessions, helps organize and run the annual ATCM meetings, and acts as the repository for official papers and information (which at present does not include scientific information).
Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP): Advises the ATCM Plenary on all aspects of environmental management covered by the Protocol on Environmental Protection.
Comprehensive Environmental Evaluation (CEE): A project review document undertaken when the predicted environmental impact is greater than minor and/or transitory. A CEE requires considerable detailed information; the draft must be made publicly available and circulated to parties, allowing at least 90 days for comment, and submitted to the CEP at least 120 days before the next Consultative Meeting. A final CEE must address all the comments received and must be circulated to parties and made publicly available at least 60 days before the start of the proposed activity.
Initial Environmental Evaluation (IEE): Environmental review document undertaken when the predicted environmental impact of a proposed project is minor and/or transitory. It is normally reported to the treaty parties but is not circulated for comment.
National Authorities: The governance structure of each nation (Consultative Party) for implementing the Antarctic Treaty. For the United States:
State Party = U.S. Department of State (political aspects of the treaty);
Science Group = NRC Polar Research Board, U.S. representative to SCAR;
Management / Logistics = NSF Office of Polar Programs (the U.S. representative to COMNAP, the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programmes)
Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR): an interdisciplinary committee of the International Council for Science (ICSU), that initiates, develops, and coordinates high-quality international scientific research in the Antarctic region and on the role of the Antarctic region in the Earth system. SCAR also provides objective and independent scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings and other organizations on issues of science and conservation affecting the management of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. SCAR has national representation from those countries with an active scientific interest in Antarctica.
Subglacial Antarctic Lake Program (SALE): Created by SCAR as a major international research program that provides the framework within which the science objectives are agreed upon by scientists interested in subglacial lakes; SALE also coordinates the pooling of data and specimens, and organizes workshops