Evolution of Life in Subglacial Aquatic Environments,

 

70

   

 Current Evidence for Life in Subglacial Aquatic Environments,

 

73

   

 Biology—Conclusions,

 

78

4

 

DRILLING AND SAMPLING TECHNOLOGIES AND THE POTENTIAL FOR CONTAMINATION

 

81

   

 Technologies to Access Subglacial Aquatic Environments,

 

81

   

 Needs for Technology Developments,

 

86

   

 Potential for Chemical Contamination,

 

88

   

 Potential Sources of Biological Contamination,

 

93

   

 Other Potential Sources of Contamination—Particulates in the Fluid,

 

94

   

 Potential for Testing and Assessing Contamination: Experiences from Deep Biosphere Sampling,

 

96

   

 Potential for Testing and Assessing Contamination: Experiences from Interplanetary Research,

 

98

   

 What Levels of Cleanliness are Feasible When Accessing Subglacial Environments?,

 

100

   

 Biological Contaminant Detection,

 

100

   

 Conclusions,

 

101

5

 

ANTARCTIC GOVERNANCE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EXPLORATION OF SUBGLACIAL AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

 

104

   

 Antarctic Treaty,

 

104

   

 Planetary Protection and the Outer Space Treaty,

 

105

   

 Management Goals for Good Stewardship,

 

110

   

 Conclusions,

 

112

6

 

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

114

   

 Toward Exploration of Subglacial Environments,

 

114

   

 Next Steps in Subglacial Exploration,

 

116

   

 Toward Establishing Levels of Cleanliness,

 

119

   

 Exploration Protocols,

 

122

   

 Research Needs,

 

124

   

 Guidelines for Stewardship, Management, and Project Review,

 

125

 

 

REFERENCES

 

129

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

   

 A  Statement of Task

 

143

   

 B  Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

 

145

   

 C  List of Acronyms

 

150



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