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Appendix A Background Information on Committee Members and Professional Staff COMMITTEE MEMBERS JOHN F. AHEARNE, Chairman, is vice president of Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. A physicist specializing in systems and policy analysis in defense, energy, and resources, Dr. Ahearne served as a deputy assistant secretary of defense for systems analysis, deputy assistant secretary of defense for program analysis and evaluation, and principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for manpower and reserve affairs. Dr. Ahearne also served as systems analyst for the White House Energy Office (1977) and deputy assistant secretary of energy for resource applications (1978~. He was a member of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission from 1978 to 1983 and was chairman from 1979 to 1981. Currently, he is chairman of the Department of Energy's Advisory Committee on Nuclear Facility Safety. ERNESTA BALLARD is a private consultant on toxic substance management in Seattle, Washington. As a regional administrator for the Environmental Protection Agency from 1983 to 1986, she was responsible for implementation and enforcement of environmental programs in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Ms. Ballard served as director of public services for Seattle (1976-1978) and budget director of the University of Washington (1974-1976~. She is chairman of the Board of Trustees of University Hospital, University of Washington; a member of the Advisory Board of Albers School of 185

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186 APPENDIX A Business, Seattle University; and a member of the Board of Trustees of The Nature Conservancy. RUTH LADEN is professor of health policy and management, the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, where she directs the Program in Law, Ethics, and Health, and is senior research scholar, Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University. Dr. Faden has done extensive research and writing in ethics and health policy and is coauthor of the book A Nistory and Theory of Informed Consent. She has served as a consultant to, among others, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Tech- nology Assessment, President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and Centers for Disease Control. JAMES A. PAY is professor of mechanical engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Fay's areas of expertise include air pollu- tion and energy. He has been a member of Maine's Natural Resources Council and the Massachusetts Energy Facility Siting Council, as well as chairman of the Boston Air Pollution Control Commission. Dr. Fay served on the National Research Council's Environmental Studies Board and the Committee on Radioactive Waste Manage- ment. He is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science; a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers; and director of the Union of Concerned Scientists. BARUCH FISCHHOFF is professor in the Department of Engineer- ing and Public Policy and the Department of Social and Decision Sciences at Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Earlier, Dr. Fischhoff spent 11 years with Decision Research and Eugene Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon, working in the areas of judgment and decision making, human factors, and risk manage- ment. He has numerous publications in these fields, including the book Acceptable Risk. Dr. Fischhoff is on the editorial boards of Policy Sciences, Cognitive Psychology, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Accident Analysis and Prevention, Social Behav- ior Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and International Journal of Forecasting. He has served on the National Research Council's Committee on Priority Mechanisms for the Na- tional Toxicology Program, Pane} on Survey Measurement of Sum jective Phenomena, Committee on Human Factors, and Committee

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APPENDIX A 187 on Pilot Performance Modeling for a Computer Aided Design and Engineering Facility. THOMAS P. CRUMBLY is president of Clean Sites, Inc., Alexan- dria, Virginia. Mr. Grumbly was executive assistant to the com- missioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (1977-1979~; deputy administrator, Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. De- partment of Agriculture (197~19813; and stab director, Subcom- mittee on Investigations and Oversight, House Committee on Sci- ence and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives (1981-1982~. He spent three years as executive director of the Health Effects In- stitute. Mr. Grumbly has also served as a consultant to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the area of risk assessment and has served on the National Research CounciT's Panel on Reform of the Federal Meat and Poultry System. PETER BARTON HUTT is a partner with the law firm of Coving- ton & BurTing, Washington, D.C. His expertise is in administrative and regulatory law. He served as chief course! to the Food arch Drug Administration (1971-1975~. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and serves on the advisory boards of the Institute for Health Policy Analysis, Georgetown University; the Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation, La JolIa, California; and the Center for Study of Drug Development, Tufts University. Mr. Hutt has served on a number of National Institutes of Health, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council committees and on the advisory pan- els on technology innovation and health, safety and environmental regulation, animal testing, biotechnology, and medical devices for Congress's Office of Technology Assessment. He coauthored the book Food and Drug Law: Cases and Material and has written a number of book chapters and articles. He has also worked and written exten- sively in the area of drug and alcohol abuse. Mr. Hutt serves on the editorial boards of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Food, Drug and Cosmetic Law Journal, and Biotechnology Law Report. BRUCE EARRH is vice president, safety, health and environmental affairs, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington' Delaware. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Occupational Medicine, the American College of Preventive Medicine, and the American Occupational Medical Association. Dr. Karrh is chairman of the Board of Directors of the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology and of the American Industrial Health Council. He is also a member of the Board of Directors of Thomas Jefferson University and its

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188 APPENDIX A clinical affairs committee. He is a diplomats of the American Board of Preventive Medicine, certified in occupational medicine. D. WARNER NORTH is a principal with Decision Focus, Inc., Los Altos, California, specializing in Decision Analysis; he is also a con- sulting professor, Department of Engineering-Economic Systems at Stanford University, and associate director of Stanford's Center for Risk Analysis, Stanford, California. Over the last 20 years Dr. North has carried out applications of decision analysis and risk assessment to a variety of public policy issues. He has participated in six previous National Research Council studies on air quality and toxic chemi- cals, including the 1983 National Research Council's Committee on the Institutional Means for Assessment of Risks to Public Health. His recent work includes development of decision frameworks for risk management of coal combustion by-products and acid deposition. Dr. North is a member of the Scientific Advisory Panel to the Gover- nor of California for the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 (Proposition 65~. He has served on committees of the Sci- ence Advisory Board of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency since 1979. JOANN E. RODGERS is deputy director of public affairs and di- rector of media relations, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland. Ms. Rodgers worked as a newspaper journalist specializing in science writing for 20 years and continues as a freelance writer of books and magazine articles on science and medicine. She is a past president of the National Association of Science Writers and a vice president of the Council for the Advancement of Science Writing. She is the recipient of a number of science writing awards, including a Lasker Award, two American Heart Association awards, and the AMA Medical Journalism award. She is the author or coauthor of books on drugs and childrearing and hundreds of magazine articles. She teaches and lectures frequently on science communication. MILTON RUSSELL is professor of economics and senior fellow Waste Management Research and Education Institute, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and senior economist, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. He served as assistant adminis- trator for policy, planning and evaluation at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1983-1987~. Dr. Russell was senior fellow and director of the Center for Energy Policy Research at Resources for the Future and spent 2 years as a senior staff economist with Pres- ident Ford's Council of Economic Advisors. He taught in Iowa and

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APPENDIX A 189 Texas before joining the Economics Department at Southern Illinois University, which he subsequently led as chairman. Dr. Russell has coauthored some half-dozen books focusing on energy and resource economics, lectured widely, and authored over 70 articles and chap ters in journals and texts. ROBERT SANGEORGE is vice president for public affairs of the National Audubon Society, headquartered in New York City. He was a working journalist for 12 years (1972-1984), including 3 years as the national environment and energy correspondent for United Press International, based in Washington, D.C. He held several other assignments during 9 years of service with UPI, including supreme court correspondent and bureau chief in Cleveland, Ohio. He also worked as a reporter/producer for 3 years in public broadcasting. Prior to his present position with the National Audubon Society, he was the assistant to the president for public accountability of Clean Sites, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia. Mr. SanGeorge held a Kiplinger Foundation Fellowship at Ohio State University in 1975-1976. HARVEY M. SAPOLSEY is professor of public policy and organi- zation in the Political Science Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Sapolsky specializes in bureaucratic politics and science and public policy. He has studied and written articles on risk, specifically concerning cigarette smoking, the fluoridation of water, and AIDS and the blood supply, and has recently edited the book Consuming Fears: The Politics of PTO]UCt Risks. Dr. Sapolsky is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of the American Political Science Association and is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law and Inquiry. JURGEN SCHMANDT is professor, LB] School of Public Affairs, University of Texas, and director, Center for Growth Studies, Hous- ton Area Research Center. He has published books on nutrition policy, the acid rain dispute between Canada and the United States, and environmental and resource policies. He recently served on the Texas Science and Technology Council. While serving as a senior environmental fellow at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, he worked on the development of a strategy for the control of toxic substances in the environment. From 1965 to 1970, Dr. Schmandt was associate director of Harvard University's Program on Technol- ogy and Society. At the Organization for Economic Cooperation and

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190 APPENDIX A Development in Paris he directed the review series on science policy in member countries. MICHAEL SCHUDSON is professor, Department of Communica- tion and Department of Sociology, and chair, Department of Com- munication, University of California, San Diego. Dr. Schudson's areas of expertise are the media and advertising. He is the author of the books Discovering the News: A Social History of American News- papers, Advertising, the Uneasy persuasion' and Reading the News, as well as many articles on the media. Dr. Schudson also serves as corresponding editor for Theory and Society and is a member of the editorial board of Critical Studies in Mass Communication. PERCY H. TANNENBAUM is professor of public policy and direc- tor of the Survey Research Center, University of California, Berke- ley. His research specialties include communication behavior, atti- tude change and measurement, mass media functions and ejects, telecommunications policy, and social research methodology. His re- cent books include Tuned-on TV/Turned-off Votes: Policy Options for Election Projections and Flies in the Policy Ointment: Perspec- tives in the California MedflLy Crisis. Dr. Tannenbaum is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Psychological Association and was a resident fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (Stanford) and the Institute for Advanced Study, Berlin. DETLOF van WINTERFE[DT is director, Risk Communication Laboratory, and professor, Department of Systems Science, Institute of Safety and Systems Management, University of Southern Califor- nia. His specialties are decision theory and risk analysis. Dr. van Winterfel~t coauthored Risk Communication: A Review of the Lit- erature and Decision Analysis and Behavioral Research. He is also a member of the Institute of Management Science and the Society for Risk Analysis, an associate member of Operations Research So- ciety of America, an associate editor for Operations Research, and a member of the editorial board of Risk Analysis and Risk Abstracts. CHRIS WHIPPLE is technical manager, Risk and Health Science Department, Environment Division, at the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California. Dr. Whipple's expertise is in the ar- eas of analysis and management of technological risks. He serves on the National Research Council's Board on Radioactive Waste Man- agement and has served on National Research Council committees

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APPENDIX A 191 on the Health and Ecological Impacts of Synfuel Industries and on Nuclear Safety Research. He also chaired the International Atomic Energy Agency's Coordinated Research Program on Risk Criteria for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. He served on the Advisory Commit- tee to the National Science Foundation Project on Risk Assessment and has been a contractor with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. Dr. Whim pie is a member and past president of the Society for Risk Analysis and a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. SUSAN W0TSHIRE is senior associate at OK Associates, Hamilton, Massachusetts, a consulting firm specializing in public policy formu- lation and citizen involvement in technical decisions. Ms. WiTtshire is particularly involved in issues of radioactive waste management. She is a member of the National Research Council's Board on Ra- dioactive Waste Management and served on the Board's Pane! on Uranium Mill Tailings. She was a member of the Program Review Committee for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and the Environmental/Institutional Review Group for the Office of Crystalline Repository Development. Ms. WiTtshire is former presi- dent of the League of Women Voters of Massachusetts, served as a member of the National League of Women Voters Nuclear Energy Education Project Advisory Committee, and coauthored the 1985 revision of the League of Women Voters' A Nuclear Waste Primer. She is currently chairman of the elected Board of Selectmen of the Town of Hamilton and vice-chairman of Northeast Health Systems, Inc., and of Beverly Hospital, Beverly, Massachusetts. PROFESSIONAL STAFF ROB COPPOC:K is senior program officer with the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources of the National Re- search Council. Dr. Coppock was a staff scientist at the Science Center Berlin in West Germany before joining the commission. He has conducted research in the area of risk and regulation for several years and is the author of Regulating Chemical in Japan, West Ger- many, France, the United Kingdom, and the European Community: A Comparative Examination and Social Constraints on Technological Progress. He edited, with others, Technological Risk: Its Perception and Handling in the European Community. From 1981 to 1987 he was on the editorial board of the journal Risk Analysis.

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192 APPENDIX A LAWRENCE E. McCRAY is executive director of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy of the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. He was associate executive director of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources of the National Research Council until August 1, 1988. Dr. McCray has held positions with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Regulatory Council, and the Office of Management and Budget. He was project director for the 1983 National Research Council Study on Risk Assessment in the Federal Government and a 1985 National Research Council Study on the Atmospheric Effects of Nuclear Explosions. Dr. McCray won the Schattschneider Award of the American Political Science Association for the best dissertation in American government and politics in 1973. PAUL C. STERN is senior staff officer with the Commission on Be- havioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Council. He also is study director of the National Research Council's Committee on Contributions of Behavioral and Social Science to the Prevention of Nuclear War. He previously served as study direc- tor of the Committee on Behavioral and Social Aspects of Energy Consumption and Production at the National Research Council and as research associate at Yale University's Institution for Social and Policy Studies. Dr. Stern's current research is on the formation of social attitudes about environmental policy. He is coeditor of Energy Use: The Numan Dimension and coauthor of the chapter "Managing Scarce Environmental Resources in the Handbook of Environmental Psychology. He also chairs the Environmental Problems Commit- tee of the Division of Population and Environmental Psychology, American Psychological Association.