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Appendix B Bibliography Abelson, R., and A. Levi. 1985. Decision making and decision theory. In Handbook of Social Psychology, ad ea., G. Lindzey and E. Aronson, eds. New York: Random House. Ackerman, B. A., and W. T. Hassler. 1977. Clean Coal, Dirty Air. New Haven Conn.: Yale University Press. Ahearne, J. 1987. Nuclear power after Chernobyl. Science 236~4802~:673-679. Allen, F. W. 1987. Towards a holistic appreciation of risk: The challenge for communicators and policymakers. Science, Technology, and Human Values 12(3&4):138-143. Ames, B. N., L. S. Gold, and R. Magaw. 1987a. Letter. Science 237~4821~:1399- 1400. Ames, B. N., R. Magaw, and L. S. Gold. 1987b. Ranking possible carcinogenic hazards. Science 236~4799~:271-280. Appelbaum, P. S., C. W. Lidz, and A. Meisel. 1987. Informed Consent: Legal Theory and Clinical Practice. New York: Oxford University Press. Aries, P. 1974. Western Attitudes Toward Death. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. Arrow, K. J. 1982. Risk perception in psychology and economics. Economic Inquiry 20~1~:1-9. Ashford, N. A., C. W. Ryan, and C. C. Cald art. 1983. A hard look at federal regulation of formaldehyde: A departure from reasoned decisionmaking. Harvard Environmental Law Review 7:297-370. Atkinson, S. E., T. D. Crocker, and R. G. Murdock. 1985. Have priors in aggregate air pollution epidemiology dictated posteriors? Journal of Urban Economics 17:319-334. Baird, B. N. R. 1986. Tolerance for environmental health risks: The influence of knowledge, benefits, voluntariness, and environmental attitudes. Risk Analysis 6~4~:425-435. 193

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194 APPENDIX B Bandura, A. 1978. The self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist (April):344-358. Barkdoll, G. L. 1983. Involving constituents in agency priority setting: A case study. Evaluation and Program Planning 6:31-37. Barles, B., and J. Kotas. 1987. Pesticides and the nation's ground water. EPA Journal 13~4~:42-43. Bartlett, J. 1980. Familiar Quotations, 15th ed. Boston: Little, Brown. Bean, M. C. 1987. Tools for environmental professionals involved in risk communication at hazardous waste facilities undergoing siting, permitting, or remediation. Paper presented at the 80th Annual Meeting of the Association Dedicated to Air Pollution Control and Hazardous Waste Management, New York, June 21-26, 1987. Bean, M. C. 1988. Speaking of risk. Civil Engineering (February):59-61. Bean, M. C., and M. K. Null. 1988. A Workshop for Citizens on Risk As- sessment. EPA pilot project. Reston, Va.: CH2M Hill. Benson, H., L. Gordon, C. Mitchell, and V. Place. 1977. Patient education and intrauterine contraception: A study of two package inserts. American Journal of Public Health 67~5~:446-449. Berreth, D. 1987. Presentation to National Research Council Committee on Risk Perception and Communication meeting, Washington, D.C., November 17, 1987. Beyth-Marom, R. 1982. How probable is probable? Journal of Forecasting 1:257-269. Breslow, L., S. Brown, and J. van Ryzin. 1986. Letter. Science 234~4779~:923. Brickman, R., S. Jasanoff, and T. Ilgen. 1985. Controlling Chemicals: The Politics of Regulation in Europe and the United States. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. Broome, T. H. 1986. The slippery ethics of engineering. The Washington Post, December 28:D3a. Brown, G. 1987. The outlook for a new pesticides law. EPA Journal 13~4~:35- 36. Budescu, D. V., and T. S. Wallsten. 1987. Subjective estimation of precise and vague uncertainties. In Judgmental Forecasting, G. Wright and P. Ayton, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Burnham, D. 1976. Energy Agency Data Termed Misleading. New York Times, September 30:A13. Campbell, G., and K. O. Ott. 1979. Statistical evaluation of major human errors during the development of new technological systems. Nuclear Science and Engineering 71:267-279. Campt, D. 1987. Daminozide: A case study of a pesticide controversy. EPA Journal 13~4~:32-34. Carpenter, S. L., and W. J. D. Kennedy. 1988. Managing Public Disputes. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass. Carson, R. 1962. Silent Spring. Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin. Chaiken, S. 1980. Heuristic versus systematic information processing and the use of source versus message cues in persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39~5~:752-766. Chemical and Engineering News. 1985. Union Carbide: New accidents revive safety issue. (August 19~:4.

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APPENDIX B 195 Chemical Education for Public Understanding Project. 1986. Risk Module Teachers Guide (draft). University of California at Berkeley, November 18, 1986. Chemical Manufacturers Association. 1986. CAER Progress Report. Washing- ton, D.C.: Chemical Manufacturers Association. Cialdini, R. B. 1984. Influence: How and Why People Agree to Things. New York: Morrow. Clark, W. C. 1980. Witches, floods, and wonder drugs: Historical perspectives on risk management. In Societal Risk Assessment: How Safe Is Safe Enough?, R. C. Schwing and W. A. Albers, Jr., eds. New York: Plenum Press. Cohen, B. L. 1987. Reducing the hazards of nuclear power: Insanity in action. Physics and Society 16~3~:2-4. Cohen, J. 1962. The statistical power of abnormal-social psychological research: A review. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 65~3~:145-153. Cohen, J. L. 1985. Strategy or identity: New theoretical paradigms and contemporary social movements. Social Research 5 2 :663-716. Coppock, R. 1987. Risk perception and communication. Working paper for the National Research Council Committee on Risk Perception and Communi- cation meeting, Washington, D.C., May 26-27, 1987. Council on Environmental Quality. 1985. Report of an Expert Meeting on Re- search Needs and Opportunities at Federally-Supervised Hazardous Waste Site Clean-Ups, Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, D.C.: October 28-30, 1985. Covello, V. T. 1984. Actual and perceived risk: A review of the literature. In Technological Risk Assessment, P. F. Ricci, L. A. Sagan, and C. G. Whipple, eds. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Covello, V. T., and M. Abernathy. 1984. Risk analysis and technological , hazards: A policy-related bibliography. In Technological Risk Assessment, P. F. Ricci, L. A. Sagan, and C. G. Whipple, eds. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Covello, V. T., and F. Allen. 1988. Seven Cardinal Rules of Risk Communica- tion. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy Analysis. Covello, V. T., D. van Winterfeldt, and P. Slovic. 1986. Risk communication: A review of the literature. Risk Abstracts 3~4~:171-182. Covello, V. T., L. B. Lave, A. Moghissi, and V. R. R. Uppuluri, eds. 1987a. Uncertainty in Risk Assessment, Risk Management, and Decision Making. New York: Plenum Press. Covello, V. T., P. Slovic, and D. van Winterfeldt. 1987b. Risk Communica- tion: A Review of the Literature. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. Covello, V. T., P. M. Sandman, and P. Slovic. 1988. Risk Communication, Risk Statistics, and Risk Comparisons: A Manual for Plant Managers. Washington, D.C.: Chemical Manufacturers Association. Crouch, E. A. C., and R. Wilson. 1982. Risk/Elenefit Analysis. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger. Cvetkovich, G., C. Vlek, and T. C. Earle. In press. Designing public hazard communication programs about large-scale technologies. In Social Decision Methodologies for Technological Projects, C. Vlek and G. Cvetkovich, eds. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

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196 APPENDIX B Davies, J. C., V. T. Covello, and F. W. Allen, eds. 1987. Risk Communication. Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation. Davis, D. 1987. Presentation to National Research Council Committee on Risk Perception and Communication meeting, Washington, D.C., November 17, 1987. Davis, D. L., A. D. Lilienfeld, A. Gittelsohn, and M. E. Scheckenbach. 1986. Increasing trends in some cancers in older Americans: Fact or artifact? Toxicology and Industrial Health 2~1~:127-144. Deisler, P. F., Jr. 1988. The risk management-risk assessment interface. Environment, Science, and Technology 22~1~:15-19. Department of Health and Human Services. 1986. Determining Risks to Health: Federal Policy and Practice. Dover, Mass.: Auburn House Publishing. Derbaix, C. 1983. Perceived risk and risk relievers an empirical investigation. Journal of Economic Psychology 3:19-38. Dezern, J. N. 1988. Risk assessment and ASTM: Reasons for and against ASTM's involvement. ASTM Standardization News 88(February):52-55. Diamond, S. 1985. Carbide blames a faulty design for toxic leak; ejects can be serious, company memo says. New York Times, August 13:A1, Be. Dickson, D. 1984. The New Politics of Science. New York: Pantheon. Dickson, R. B. 1987. Risk assessment and the law: Evolving criteria by which carcinogenicity risk assessments are evaluated in the legal community. In Uncertainty in Risk Assessment, Risk Management, and Decision Making, V. T. Covello, L. B. Lane, A. Moghissi, and V. R. R. Uppuluri, eds. New York: Plenum Press. Dietz, T. M., and R. W. Rycroft. 1987. The Risk Professionals. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Dietz, T., P. C. Stern, and R. W. Rycroft. 1989. Definitions of conflict and the legitimation of resources: The case of environmental risk. Sociological Forum 4~1~:47-70. Dirkin, G. R. 1983. Cognitive tunneling: Use of visual information under stress. Perceptual and Motor Skills 56:191-198. Douglas, M. 1985. Risk Acceptability According to the Social Sciences. Social Research Perspectives. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Douglas, M., and A. Wildav~sky. 1982. Risk and Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press. Dreman, D. 1979. Contrarian investment strategy. New York: Random House. Dunlap, R. E. 1987. Public opinion and the environment in the Reagan era. Environment 29(July/August) :6-11, 32-37. Dunlap, R. E., J. K. Grieneeks, and M. Rokeack. 1983. Human values and pro-environmental behavior. In Energy and Material Resources: Attitudes, Values, and Public Policy, W. D. Conn, ed. AAAS Selected Symposium 75. Boulder, Colo.: Westview. Dunwoody, S., M. Friestad, and M. A. Shapiro. 1987. Conveying risk infor- mation in the mass media. Paper presented to the Mass Communication Division of the International Communication Association, May 1987. Eagly, A. H., and S. Chaiken. 1985. Psychological theories of persuasion. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, L. Berkowitz, ed. New York: Academic Press. Economist, The. 1987. Making company disasters less disastrous (January 31~:55-56.

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APPENDIX B 197 Edwards, W., and D. van Winterfeldt. 1986. Public disputes about risky tech- nologies: Stakeholders and arenas. In Risk Evaluation and Management, V. T. Covello, J. Menkes, and J. Mumpower, eds. New York: Plenum Press. Elliott, M. L. P. 1987. The effect of differing assessments of risk in hazardous waste facility siting negotiations. Paper presented at the Workshop on Negotiating Hazardous Waste Facility Siting and Permitting Agreements, The Conservation Foundation, Washington, D.C., June 15, 1987. Environmental Protection Agency. 1987a. Answering questions about pesti- cides: An interview with John A. Moore. EPA Journal 13~4~:4-8. Environmental Protection Agency. 1987b. A consumer's guide to safer pesticide use. EPA Journal 13~4~:9-31. Environmental Protection Agency, Science Advisory Board. 1988. Letter of March 9. Faden, R. 1987. Ethical issues in government sponsored public health cam- paigns. Health Education Quarterly 14~1~:27-37. leaden, R. R., and T. L. Beauchamp. 1986. A History and Theory of Informed Consent. New York: Oxford University Press. Ferguson, E. S. 1987. Risk and the American engineering profession: The ASME boiler code and American industrial safety standards. In The Social and Cultural Construction of Risk, B. B. Johnson and V. T. Covello, eds. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel. File, S. E., and A. Jew. 1973. Syntax and the recall of instructions in a realistic situation. British Journal of Psychology 64:65-70. Fischhoff, B. 1982. Debiasing. In Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, D. Kahneman, P. Slovic, and A. Tversky, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press. Fischhoff, B. 1983. `'Acceptable risks: The case of nuclear power. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 2~4~:559-575. Fischhoff, B. 1984. Setting standards: A systematic approach to managing public health and safety risks. Management Science 30~7~:823-843. Fischhoff, B. 1985a. Managing risk perceptions. Issues in Science and Technol- ogy 2~1~:83-96. Fischhoff, B. 1985b. Protocols for environmental reporting: What to ask the experts. The Journalist (Winter) :11-15. Fischhoff, B. 1985c. Risk analysis demystified. NCAP News (Winter):30-33. Fischhoff, B. 1987. Treating the public with risk communications: A public health perspective. Science, Technology, and Human Values 12~3&4~:13- 19. Fischhoff, B. 1988. Judgment and decision making. In The Psychology of Human Thought, R. J. Sternberg and E. E. Smith, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press. Fischhoff, B., and L. A. Cox, Jr. 1985. Conceptual framework for regulatory benefits assessment. In Benefits Assessment: The State of the Art, J. D. Bentkover, V. T. Covello, and J. Mumpower, eds. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel. Fischhoff, B., and D. MacGregor. 1983. Judged lethality: How much people seem to know depends upon how they are asked. Risk Analysis 3:229-236. Fischhoff, B., and O. Svenson. 1987. Perceived risks of radionuclides: Under- standing public understanding. In Radionuclides in the Food Chain, G. Schmidt, ed. New York: Praeger.

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198 APPENDIX B Fischhoff, B., P. Slavic, and S. Lichtenstein. 1977. Knowing with certainty: The appropriateness of extreme confidence. Journal of Experimental Psy- chology: Human Perception and Performance 20:159-183. Fischhoff, B., P. Slovic, S. Lichtenstein, S. Read, and B. Combs. 1978. How safe is safe enough? A psychometric study of attitudes towards technological risks and benefits. Policy Sciences 9:127-152. Fischhoff, B., P. Slovic, and S. Lichtenstein. 1980. Knowing what you want: Measuring labile values. In Cognitive Processes in Choice and Decision Behavior, T. Wallsten, ed. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Fischhoff, B., S. Lichtenstein, P. Slovic, S. L. Derby, and R. L. Keeney. 1981a. Acceptable Risk. New York: Cambridge University Press. Fischhoff, B., P. Slavic, and S. Lichtenstein. 1981b. Lay foibles and expert fables in judgments about risk. In Progress in Resource Management and Environmental Planning, T. O'Riordan and R. K. Turner, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Fischhoff, B., P. Slovic, and S. Lichtenstein. 1983. "The publics vs. The experts": Perceived vs. actual disagreements about risks of nuclear power. In Analysis of Actual vs. Perceived Risks, V. Covello, G. Flamm, J. Rodericks, and R. Tardiff, eds. New York: Plenum Press. Fischhoff, B., S. R. Watson, and C. Hope. 1984. Defining risk. Policy Sciences 17:123-129. Fischhoff, B., O. Svenson, and P. Slovic. 1986. Active responses to envi- ronmental hazards: Perceptions and decision making. In Handbook of Environmental Psychology, D. Stokols and I. Altman, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Fischhoff, B., L. Furby, and R. Gregory. 1987. Evaluating voluntary risks of injury. Accident Analysis and Prevention 19~1~:51-62. Fishburn, P. C. 1982. Foundations of risk measurement: II. Effects of gains on risk. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 25:226-242. Fisher, A. 1987. Radon projects at EPA. Presented to National Research Council Committee on Risk Perception and Communication meeting, Washington, D.C., July 23, 1987. Fiske, S., and S. Taylor. 1984. Social Cognition. Reading, Mass.: Addison- Wesley. Fitchen, J. M., J. S. Heath, and J. Fessenden-Raden. 1987. Risk perception in community context: A case study. In The Social and Cultural Construction of Risk, B. B. Johnson and V. T. Covello, eds. Dordrecht, Holland; D. Reidel. Folkman, S. 1984. Personal control and stress and coping processes: A theoret- ical analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46~4~:839-852. Freudenburg, W., and E. Rosa, eds. 1984. Public Reaction to Nuclear Power: Are There Critical Masses? Boulder, Colo.: Westv~iew. Friedman, B., D. Lockwood, L. Snowden, and D. Zeidler. 1986. Mass media and disaster: Annotated bibliography. Miscellaneous Report No. 36. Newark: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center. Friedman, S., C. M. Gorney, and B. P. Egolf. 1987. Reporting on radiation: A content analysis of Chernobyl coverage. Journal of Communication 37~3~:58-79. Gale, R. P. 1987. Calculating risk: Radiation and Chernobyl. Journal of Communication 37~3~:68-79.

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APPENDIX B 199 Geller, E. S. 1983. Development of industry-based strategies for motivating seat belt usage. Final report for contract no. DTRS5681-C-0032. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation. Gibbs, L. 1982. Love Canal: My Story. New York: Grove Press. Gough, M., R. Hart, B. W. Karrh, A. Koestner, R. Neal, D. Parkinson, F. Perera, K. E. Powell, and H. S. Rosenkranz. 1984. Report on the consensus workshop on formaldehyde. Environmental Health Perspectives 58:323-381. Gould, L. C., G. T. Gardner, D. R. DeLuca, A. R. Tiemann, L. W. Doob, and J. A. J. Stolwijk. 1988. Perceptions of Technological Risks and Benefits. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Gray, J. 1981. Three case studies of organized responses to chemical disasters. Miscellaneous Report No. 29. Newark: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Center. Greenberg, D. S., and M. Taylor (illustrations). 1984. What is an acceptable risk? National Wildlife (August/September):29-32. Greenwald, A. G., and C. Leavitt. 1984. Audience involvement in advertising: Four levels. Journal of Consumer Research 11:581-592. Greenwood, T. 1984. Knowledge and Discretion in Government Regulation. New York: Praeger. Hadden, S. G., ed. 1984. Risk Analysis, Institutions, and Public Policy. Port Washington, N.Y.: Associated Faculty Press. Hadden, S. G. 1986. Read the Label: Providing Information to Reduce Health and Safety Risks. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press for the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Hance, B. J., C. Chess, and P. M. Sandman. 1988. Improving Dialogue with Communities: A Risk Communication Manual for Government. Trenton: Division of Science and Research Risk Communication Unit, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Harness, R. L. 1987. Managing pesticides: An industry view. EPA Journal 13~4~:40-41. Hasher, L., and R. T. Zachs. 1984. Automatic and effortful processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 108:356-388. Hays, S. P. 1987. Beauty, Health, and Permanence: Environmental Politics in the United States, 1955-1985. New York: Cambridge University Press. Henrion, M., and B. Fischhoff. 1986. Assessing uncertainty in physical con- stants. American Journal of Physics 54~9~:791-798. Hershey, J. C., and P. J. H. Shoemaker. 1980. Risk taking and problem context in the domain of losses: An expected utility analysis. Journal of Risk and Insurance 47:111-132. Hively, W. 1988. Nuclear Dower at risk. American Scientist 76f.llliv-All~llct) 341-343. ~^ ^ _ CAN ~^ V ^ V ~V \- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ U } - Hogarth, R. M. 1981. Beyond discrete biases: Functional and dysfunctional aspects of judgmental heuristics. Psychological Bulletin 90~2~:197-217. Hohenemser, C., R. W. Kates, and P. Slovic. 1983. The nature of technological hazard. Science 220~45953:378-384. Holland, N. 1987. Presentation to National Research Council Committee on Risk Perception and Communication meeting, Washington, D.C., November 17, 1987.

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200 APPENDIX B Hovland, C. I., I. L. Janis, and H. H. Kelley. 1953. Communication and Persuasion: Psychological Studies of Opinion Change. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Humber, J. M., and R. F. Almeder, eds. 1987. Quantitative Risk Assessment: Biomedical Ethics Reviews-1986. Clifton, N.J.: Humana Press. Hutt, P. B. 1974. A regulator's viewpoint. In How Safe Is Safe? The Design of Policy on Drugs and Food Additives. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Hutt, P. B. 1982. Food and drug law: A strong and continuing tradition. Food Drug Cosmetic Law Journal 37:123-137. Hutt, P. B., and P. B. Hutt II. 1984. A history of government regulation of adulteration and misbranding of food. Food Drug Cosmetic Law Journal 39:2-73. Ikeda, S. 1986. Managing technological and environmental risks in Japan. Risk Analysis 6~4~:389-401. Inglehart, R. 1977. Values, objective needs, and subjective satisfaction among western publics. Comparative Political Studies 4:428-458. Inhaber, H. 1981. The risk of producing energy. - Society of London A376:121-131. Inside EPA. 1982. Proceedings of the Royal Congressmen will press EPA on national dioxin policy. (November 19~:1, 4. Institute for Environmental Negotiation. 1984. Not in my backyard! Commu- nity Reaction to Locally Unwanted Land Use. Charlottesville: University of Virginia. Isaacs, T. 1987. Presentation to National Research Council Committee on Risk Perception and Communication meeting, Washington, D.C., July 23, 1987. Jaeger, J. 1988. Developing Policies for Responding to Climatic Change. World Climate Programme Impact Studies (WMO/TD-No. 225~. World Meteorological Association and United Nations Environmental Programme. April. Jasanoff, S. 1986. Risk management and political culture. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Jasanoff, S. 1987. EPA's regulation of Daminozide: Unscrambling the messages of risk. Science, Technology, and Human Values 12~3&4~:116-124. Jenkins, C. 1983. Resource mobilization theory and the study of social move- ments. Annual Review of Sociology 9:527-553. Jerome, F. 1986. Check it out: Journalists communicating about risk. Tech- nology in Society 8:287-290. Johnson, B. B., and V. T. Covello, eds. 1987. The Social and Cultural Construction of Risk: Essays on Risk Selection and Perception. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel. Kahneman, D., and A. Tversky. 1972. Subjective probability: A judgment of representativeness. Cognitive Psychology 3:430-454. Kahneman, D., and A. Tversky. 1979. Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 47~2~:263-291. Kahneman, D., P. Slovic, and A. Tversky, eds. 1982. Judgments Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. New York: Cambridge University Press. Kasperson, R. 1986. Six propositions on public participation and their relevance for risk communication. Risk Analysis 6~3~:275-281.

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APPENDIX B 201 Kaufman, D. G. 1988. Assessment of carcinogenicity: Generic issues and their application to diesel exhaust. In Air Pollution, the Automobile, and Public Health, A. Y. Watson, R. R. Bates, and D. Kennedy, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Keeney, R., and D. van Winterfeldt. 1986. Improving risk communication. Risk Analysis 6~4~:417-424. Kerr, R. A. 1988. Indoor radon: The deadliest pollutant. Science 240~4852~:606- 608. Kong, A., G.O. Barnett, F. Mosteller, and C. Youtz. 1986. How medical professionals evaluate expressions of probability. New England Journal of Medicine 315~12~:740-744. Koshland, D. E. 1987. Immortality and risk assessment. Science 236~4799~:241. Krimsky, S., and A. Plough. 1988. Environmental Hazards: Communicating Risks as a Social Process. Dover, Mass.: Auburn House. Lave, L. B. 1987. Health and safety risk analyses: Information for better decisions. Science 236~4799~:291-295. Lawless, E. W. 1977. Technology and Social Shock. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. Levine, A. G. 1982. Love Canal: Science, Politics, and People. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books. Lewis, H. W. 1980. The safety of fission reactors. Scientific American 342~3~:33- 45. Lichtenstein, S., and B. Fischhoff. 1980. Training for calibration. tional Behavior and Human Performance 26:149-171. Organiza Lichtenstein, S., P. Slovic, B. Fischhoff, M. Layman, and B. Combs. 1978. Judged frequency of lethal events. Journal calf ExDeriment;~1 Pc~rrh~l^=u. Human Learning and Memory 4:551-578. Lichtenstein, S., B. Fischboff, and L. D. Phillips. 1982. Calibration of proba- bilities: The state of the art. In Judgments Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, D. Kahneman, P. Slovic, and A. Tversky, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press. Lind, N., ed. 1988. Risk Communication: A Symposium. Waterloo: University of Waterloo. Lipset, S. M., and W. Schneider. 1987. The Confidence Gap: Business, Labor, and Government in the Public Mind (revised edition). Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. Lowrance, W. 1976. Of acceptable risk. San Francisco: Freeman. Lynn, F. M. 1986. The interplay of science and values in assessing and regulating environmental risks. Science, Technology, and Human Values 11~2~:40-50. Lynn, F. M. 1987. Citizen involvement in hazardous waste sites: Two North Carolina success stories. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 7:347- 361. Maccoby, N., and D. S. Solomon. 1981. Heart disease prevention: Community studies. In Public Communication Campaigns, R. E. Rice and W. J. Paisley, eds. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage. Manning, W. W. 1986. Concern justified about Frostban. Salinas Californian. January 22, 1986. Marshall, E. 1983a. House reviews EPA's record on pesticides. Science 219(4589):1200. Marshall, E. 1983b. Hit list at EPA? Science 219~4590~:1303. _ ~_ _. ~O ~

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202 APPENDIX B Marshall, E. 1983c. EPA's troubles reach a crescendo. Science 219~4591~:1402- 1404. Mazis, M. B., R. Staelin, H. Beales, and S. Salop. 1981. A framework for evaluating consumer information regulation. Journal of Marketing 45:11- 21. Mazur, A. 1981. The Dynamics of Technical Controversy. Washington, D.C.: Communications Press. Mazur, A. 1987. Putting radon on the public's risk agenda. Science, Technology, and Human Values 12~3&4~:86-93. Mazur, A. 1988. Mass Media Effects on Public Opinion About Nuclear Power Plants. Unpublished manuscript. Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. McAlister, A. 1981. Antismoking campaigns: Progress in developing effective communications. In Public Communication Campaigns, R. E. Rice and W. J. Paisley, eds. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage. McArthur, L. Z., D. Q. Crocker, and E. Folino. 1981. Individual differences in cue utilization on spatial tasks. Perceptual and Motor Skills 52:923-929. McCormick, N. J. 1981. Reliability and Risk Analysis. New York: Academic Press. McGuire, W. J. 1985. Attitudes and attitude change. In Handbook of Social Psychology, ad ea., Vol. 2., G. Lindzey and E. Aronson, eds. New York: Random House. McKean, K. 1985. Decisions, decisions. Discover (June):22-31. Melnick, R. S. 1983. Regulation and the Courts: The Case of the Clean Air Act. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. Melnick, R. S. 1988. The politics of cost-benefit analysis. Paper prepared for National Academy of Sciences Conference on Valuing Health Risks, Costs, and Benefits in Environmental Decisions, Washington, D.C., June 23-24, 1987. Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. 1987. New high expectation of life. Statistical Bulletin 68~3~:8-14. Milbrath, L. 1984. Environmentalists: Vanguard for a New Society. Albany: State University of New York Press. Mitchell, R. C. 1980. Public opinion on environmental issues. In Environmental Quality: The Eleventh Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Morrison, D. 1987. A Tale of Two Toxicities. Presentation to the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Chicago, Ill., August 1987. Moscovici, S. 1985. Social influence and conformity. In Handbook of Social Psychology, ad ea., Vol. 2., G. Lindsey and E. Aronson, eds. New York: Random House. Mott, L. 1987. Managing pesticides: An environmentalist view. EPA Journal 13~4~:37-39. Murphy, A. H., and B. G. Brown. 1983. Forecast terminology: Composition and interpretation of public weather forecasts. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 64:13-22. Murphy, A. H., and R. L. Winkler. 1984. Probability of precipitation forecasts. Journal of the American Statistical Association 79:391-400.

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APPENDIX B 203 Murphy, A. H., S. Lichtenstein, B. Fischhoff, and R. L. Winkler. 1980. Misinterpretations of precipitation probability forecasts. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 61:695-701. Mydans, S. 1987. Specter of Chernobyl looms over Bangladesh. The New York Times, June 5:19. Naber, T. 1988. Nanograms are not the answer to 'Will I be hurt?' questions. Waste Age (March):44-48. National Research Council. 1979. Disasters in the Mass Media: Proceedings of the Committee on Disasters and the Mass Media Workshon. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press. , ~ A--~ ~ ~ V ~ ^^ ~ National Research Council. 1980. The Effect on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1982. Risk and Decision-Making: Perspectives and Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1983a. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1983b. Risk Assessment in the Federal Govern- ment: Managing the Process. Working papers for the Committee on the Institutional Means for Assessment of Risks to Public Health. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1984. Toxicity Testing: Strategies to Determine Needs and Priorities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1986a. Confronting AIDS: Directions for Public Health, Health Care, and Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1986b. Drinking Water and Health, Vol. 8. Wash- ington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1988a. Complex Mixtures: Methods for In Vivo Toxicity Testing. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council, Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR IV). 1988b. Appendix II: Cellular Radiobiology. In Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters, BEIR IV. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Nelkin, D. 1979a. Science, technology, and political convict: Analyzing the issues. In Controversy: Politics of Technical Decisions, D. Nelkin, ed. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage. Nelkin, D., ed. 1979b. Controversy: Politics of Technical Decisions. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage. Nelkin, D. 1987. Selling Science: How the Press Covers Science and Technology. New York: W. H. Freeman. Nelkin, D., and M. S. Brown. 1984. Worker at Risk: Voices from the Workplace. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago. Neutra, R. R. 1985. Epidemiology for and with a distrustful community. Environmental Health Perspectives 62:393-397. Nisbett, R. E., and L. Ross. 1980. Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcom- ings of Social Judgment. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 1985. NRC Manual Chapter NRC-4125 (September 1980, amended July 1985~. Washington, D.C.: Nuclear Regu- latory Commission.

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204 APPENDIX B Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 1987. Differing Professional Opinions: 1987 Special Review Panel. NUREG-1290. Washington, D.C.: Nuclear Regula- tory Commission. O'Brien, D. M., and D. A. Marchand. 1982. The Politics of Technology Assessment. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books. 017icc of Commur~ication of the Uruted Church of Christ v. Federal Communication Commi~ior`, U.S. Court of Appeals District of Columbia Circuit, 359 F.2d 994 (1966~. Once of Technology Assessment. 1981. Assessment of Technologies of De- termining Cancer Risks from the Environment. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Okrent, D. 1980. An Approach to Quantitative Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. NUREG-0739. Washington, D.C.: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Okrent, D. 1981. Industrial risks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A376:133-149. Okrent, D. 1987. The safety goals of the U.S. nuclear regulatory commission. Science 236~4799~:296-300. O'Leary, M. K., W. D. Coplin, H. B. Shapiro, and D. Dean. 1974. The quest for relevance. International Studies Quarterly 18:211-237. Otway, H. 1987. Experts, risk communication, and democracy. Risk Analysis 7~2~:125-129. Otway, H. J., and D. van Winterfeldt. 1982. Beyond acceptable risk: On the social acceptability of technologies. Policy Sciences 14 :247-2 56. Page, T. 1981. A framework for unreasonable risk in the Toxic Substances Control Act. In Carcinogenic Risk Assessment, R. Nicholson, ed. New York: New York Academy of Sciences. Pate, M. E. 1983. Acceptable decision processes and acceptable risks in public sector regulations. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics SMC-13(2) :1 13-124. Patterson, J. T. 1987. The Dread Disease. University Press. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Peterson, C. R., and L. R. Beach. 1969. Man as an intuitive statistician. Psychological Bulletin 69:29-46. Petty, R. E., J. T. Cacioppo, C. Sedikides, and A. J. Strathman. 1988. Affect and persuasion. American Behavioral Scientist 31~3~:355-371. Plough, A., and S. Krimsky. 1987. The emergence of risk communication studies: Social and political context. Science, Technology, and Human Values 12~3&4~:4-10. Pochin, E. E. 1980. The need to estimate risks. Physics in Medicine and Biology 25~1~:1-12. Pochin, E. E. 1981. Quantification of risk in medical procedures. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A376:87-101. Pochin, E. E. 1982. Risk and medical ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics 8:180-184. Pollatsek, A., and A. Tversky. 1970. A theory of risk. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 7:540-553. Poulton, E. C. 1968. The new psychophysics: Six models for magnitude estimation. Psychological Bulletin 69:1-19. Poulton, E. C. 1982. Biases in quantitative judgments. Applied Ergonomics 13:31-42.

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206 APPENDIX B Ruckelshaus, W. D. 1983. Science, risk and public policy. Science 221:1026- 1028. Ruckelshaus, W. D. 1984. Risk in a Free Society. Risk Analysis 4~3~:157-162. Ruckelshaus, W. D. 1985. Risk, science, and democracy. Issues in Science and Technology 1 (3) :19-38. Ruckelshaus, W. D. 1987. Communicating about risk. In Risk Communication, J. C. Davies, V. T. Covello, and F. W. Allen, eds. Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation. Rushefsky, M. E. 1984. The misuse of science in governmental decisionmaking. Science, Technology, and Human Values 9~3~:47-59. Russell, M., and M. Gruber. 1987. Risk assessment in environmental policy- making. Science 236~4799~:286-290. Sagan, L. A. 1987. Beyond risk assessment. Risk Analysis 7~13:1-2. Sandman, P. M. 1986. Explaining Environmental Risk: Some Notes on Envi- ronmental Risk Communication. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Sandman, P. M., D. B. Sachsman, and M. R. Greenberg. 1987a. The Envi- ronmental News Source: Informing the Media During an Environmental Crisis. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University. Sandman, P. M., N. D. Weinstein, and M. L. Klotz. 1987b. Public response to the risk from geological radon. Journal of Communication 37~3~:93-108. Sapolsky, H. M. 1968. Science, voters, and the fluoridation controversy. Science 162~0ctober 25~:427-433. Sapolsky, H. M., ed. 1986. Consuming Fears: The Politics of Product Risks. New York: Basic Books. Sapolsky, H. M. 1987. Is honesty the best policy? In AIDS Public Policy Dimensions, J. Griggs, ed. New York: United Hospital Fund of New York. Scenic Hudson Prc~ervabor~ Cor~fercr~cc v. Federal Power Commi`aior`, 354 F. 2d 608 (2d Cir. 1965~. Schmandt, J. 1984. Regulation and science. Science, Technology, and Human Values 9~1) :23-38. Schneiderman, M. A. 1983. Cancer: Scientific policy, public policy, and the prevention of disease. Carolina Environmental Essay Series. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Institute for Environmental Studies. Schneiderman, M. A. 1987a. Risk assessment where do we want it to go? In Quantitative Risk Assessment: Biomedical Ethics Reviews, J. M. Humber and R. F. Almeder, eds. Clifton, N.J.: Humana Press. Schneiderman, M. A. 1987b. Expectation and limitation of human studies and risk assessment. In Health Effects from Hazardous Waste Sites, J. B. Andelman and D. W. Underhill, eds. Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers. Schudson, M. 1978. Discovering the News. New York: Basic Books. Schultz, W., G. McClelland, B. Hurd, and J. Smith. 1986. Improving Accu- racy and Reducing Costs of Environmental Benefits Assessment. Vol. IV. Boulder: University of Colorado, Center for Economic Analysis. Schuman, H., and J. Scott. 1987. Problems in the use of survey questions to measure public opinion. Science 236~4804~:957-959. Schwartz, S. H. 1977. Normative influences on altruism. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 10, L. Berkowitz, ed. New York: Academic Press.

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APPENDIX B 207 Sharlin, H. I. 1987. Macro-risks, micro-risks, and the media: The EDB case. In The Social and Cultural Construction of Risk, B. B. Johnson and V. T. Covello, eds. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel. Sherry' S. 1985. High Tech and Toxics: A Guide for Local Communities. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Policy Alternatives. Sheth, J. N., and G. L. Frazier. 1982. A model of strategy mix choice or planned social change. Journal of Marketing 46:15-26. Shilts, R. 1987. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: St. Martin's Press. Short, J. F., Jr. 1984. The social fabric at rick: Toward the social transforma- tion of risk analysis. American Sociological Review 49:711. Siegel, B. 1987. Managing Risks: Sense and Science. Los Angeles Times, July 5:11. Silbergeld, E. 1987a. Responsibilities of risk communicators. In Risk Cc~mm,, nication, J. C. Davies, V. T. Covello, and F. W. Allen, eds. Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation. Silbergeld, E. 1987b. Letter. Science 237~4821~:1399. Simmons, J. 1984. Rights and wrongs in hazardous waste disposal. In Not in My Backyard! Community Reaction to Locally Unwanted Land Use. Charlottesville: University of Virginia. Sindell v. Abbott La60ratorsce, 26 Cal. ad 588 (1980~. Singer, S., and P. Endreny. 1987. Reporting hazards: Their benefits and costs. Journal of Communication 37~3~:10-26. Slovic, P. 1986. Informing and educating the public about risk. Risk Analysis 6~4~:403-415. Slovic, P. 1987. Perception of risk. Science 236~4799~:280-285. Slovic, P., B. Fischhoff, and S. Lichtenstein. 1979. Rating the risks. Environ- ment 21~3~:14-20, 36-39. Slovic, P., B. Fischhoff, and S. Lichtenstein. 1980. Perceived risk. In Societal Risk Assessment: How Safe Is Safe Enough?, R. Schwing and W. A. Albers, eds. New York: Plenum Press. Slovic, P., S. Lichtenstein, and B. Fischhoff. 1988. Decision making. In Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Smith, H. L. 1974. Myocardial infarction case studies of ethics in the consent situation. Social Science and Medicine 8:399-404. Smith, L. 1987. STOP I.T.: Citizens' response to hazardous waste treat- ment facility. Presented to National Research Council Committee on Risk Perception and Communication meeting, Washington, D.C., July 23, 1987. Smith, R. J. 1983. Covering the EPA: Or, wake me up if anything happens. Columbia Journalism Review 22(September-October):29-34. Smith, R. J. 1986. Chernobyl report surprisingly detailed but avoids painful truths, experts say. Washington Post, August 27:A25. Smith, V. K., W. H. Desvou~ge~, A. Fisher, and F. R. Johnson. 1987. Commu- nicating radon risk electively: A mid-course evaluation. EPA Cooperative Agreement No. CR-811075. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Pro- tection Agency, Office of Policy Analysis. Sood, R., G. Stockdale, and E. M. Rogers. 1987. How the news media operate in natural disasters. Journal of Communications 37~3~:27-41.

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208 APPENDIX B Sosenko, A. 1983. After Burford, what? The time has come for a new EPA beginning. Inside EPA 4~11) :3. Spain, D. 1984. Women's role in opposing locally unwanted land uses. In Not in My Backyard! Community Reaction to Locally Unwanted Land Use. Charlottesville: University of Virginia. Stallen, P. J., and R. Coppock. 1987. About risk communication and risky communication. Risk Analysis 7~4~:413-414. Starr, C., and C. Whipple. 1980. Risks of risk decisions. Science 208~44483:1114- 1119. Starr, P. 1982. The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books. Stephens, M., and N. G. Edison. 1982. News media coverage of issues during the accident at Three Mile Island. Journalism Quarterly 59:199-204. Stern, P. C., and E. Aronson. 1984. Energy use: The human dimension. New York: W. H. Freeman. Stern, P. C., T. Dietz, and J. S. Black. 1986. Support for environmental protection: The role of moral norms. Population and Environment 8:204- 222. Suplee, C. 1987. Semiotics: In search of more perfect persuasion. The Wash- ington Post, January 18:C3. Sorenson, O., and B. FischhoR. 1985. Levels of environmental decisions. Journal of Environmental Psychology 5:55-67. Tarr, J. A., and C. Jacobson. 1987. Environmental risk in historical perspective. In The Social and Cultural Construction of Risk, B. B. Johnson and V. T. Covello, eds. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel. Thaler, R. 1985. Mental accounting and consumer choice. Marketing Science 4~3~:199-214. Thomas, L. 1987. Making and communicating pesticide decisions. EPA Journal 13~4~:3. Tichenor, P., G. Donohue, and C. Olien. 1980. Community Condict and the Press. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage. Tiemann, A. R. 1987. Comment: Risk, technology, and society. Risk Analysis 7~1~:11-13. Tierney, J. 1988. Not to worry. Hippocrates (January/February):29-38. Touraine, A., et al. 1983. Anti-nuclear Protest: The Opposition to Nuclear Energy in France. New York: Cambridge University Press. Towle, M. 1986. Carbide neighbors view leak as catalyst for change. Charleston Daily Mail, August 8:1-A. Travis, C. C., and R. K. White. 1988. Interspecific scaling of toxicity data. Risk Analysis 8~1~:119-125. Tversky, A., and D. Kahneman. 1971. The belief in the "law of small numbers. Psychological Bulletin 76:105-110. Tversky, A., and D. Kahneman. 1973. Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability. Cognitive Psychology 5:207-232. Tversky, A., and D. Kahneman. 1981. The framing of decisions and the rationality of choice. Science 211~4481~:453-458. Urquhart, J., and K. Heilmann. 1984. Riskwatch: The Odds of Life. New York: Facts on File. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1980. Social Indicators III. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census.

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210 APPENDIX B Wolfe, A. K. 1986. Confidence in Technologies: Interactions Between Publics and Industries. Paper presented at the Society for Risk Analysis Annual Meeting, Boston, Mass., November 11. Zeckhauser, R., and D. S. Shephard. 1981. Principles for saving and valuing lives. In The Benefits of Health and Safety Regulation, A. Ferguson and E. P. LeVeen, eds. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger. Zimmerman, R. 1987. A process framework for risk communication. Science, Technology, and Human Values 12~3&4~:131-137.