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Index A Abortion attitudes, 230 Acceptable risk, 274, 284; Cc ale o 54-71, 85-90 Access to decision-making process, 7, 127-28, 285-86 to scientific information, 5, 7-8, 114-15, 141-42, 278-80 Accident reports, 255 Accountability, 10, 156-58 Acid rain, 115 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) public's knowledge of, 227-28, 290 risk communication issues, 6, 89, 90, 116, 135-37, 165 uncertainty of information on, 61, 121 Action threshold, 173 Active public, 101, 102 Administrative Procedures Act of 1946, 16, 73, 100, 125, 128 Advocacy, sec Influence techniques Agricultural workers, 32 Agriculture, 59 Agriculture Department, 113 Air bags, 19 Airline accidents, 257 Air pollution, 58, 116 Alcohol information, 17 Alcohol taxation, 19 323 Aldicarb oxime, 110 Ambiguously worded questions, 228-33, 265 American Bar Association, 178 American Cancer Society, 115 American Chemical Society, 178 American Medical Association, 7, 178 Anchoring, 226 Animal experiments, 39, 40, 58 Appeals to authority, 84-85 Appeals to emotion, 85 Arsenic contamination, 18 Artificial sweeteners, 274 Asarco Corp., 18 Asbestos hazard, 43, 257 Assassinations, 63 Atomic Energy Commission, 120 Attentive public, 101, 102 Attitude surveys, 228-33, 263-66 Audience/Recipients, 322 audience profiles, 10, 24, 161-62 ~audience/recipients~ defined, 322 characteristics of, 101-2 concept defined, 271 effect on message formulation, 282 proposed consumer's guide, 12-13, 176-79 psychological principles, 299-304 relating messages to, 11 , 13, 165-70, 181-82 risk literacy, 13, 182

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324 strategies for dealing with, 283-86 Audubon Society, 63 Automobile accidents, 220, 278 Automobile industry, 31, 137 seat belts, 19, 58, 137 B Base-rate fallacy, 290 BBC (British Broadcasting Corp.), 279 Behavioral principles, 299-304 Benefit assessment expressed preferences, 263-66 policy concerns, 262-63 questions addressed in, 33-35 revealed preferences, 266-68, 284 reliability of, 36-37 Bhopal, India, 61, 66, 126, 157, 285 Blood banks, 116 Bomb-hits analysis, 247 Botulism, 31 C California, 91, 110 Cancer, 31, 32, 45, 61, 277 Canned food, 31, 257 Carter administration, 157 Case analyses, 13, 182 Catastrophic events, 42, 56, 237-38, 303 Causal model, 220-21 Celebrities' endorsements, 140 Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 109 Chemical industry, 229 Chemical Manufacturers Association, 128 Chemical plant management, 128, 130 Chernobyl disaster, 61, 66, 122, 300 Child abuse, 257-58 China, 59 Chlorinated hydrocarbons, 31, 55 Chlorination of water, 31, 32, 56 Chloroiluorocarbons, 56, 91 Choice problems, 230-32, 304 Chromosome damage study, 119-20 Chronic diseases, 61 Citizens' groups, 141, 153, 222 Civil engineers, 47, 49, 249 INDEX Civil rights movement, 63 Clean Water Act, 5 Climatic changes, 56, 59, 237, 238, 257 Clinical psychologists, 45, 248 Coal mining, 48, 259 Cognitive processes, 299-304 Common sense, 233-36 Communications technology, 62 Community Awareness and Emergency Response program, 128 Community channels, 7, 140, 164 Community involvement, 17-18, 127-28, 285-86 Community Right-to-Know Act, 16, 110, 141-42 Competence development, 10-11, 16~64 Confidence intervals, 250-53, 279, 280 Conflict, Cc Social condicts Conservation attitudes, 274 Consumer Product Safety Commission, 64 Consumer's guide to risk and risk communication, 12-13, 176-79 Content of messages, Cc Risk messages Cost-benefit analysis, 219, 262; em also 33-38 Credibility concerns, 118-19, 146, 280 accuracy of message, 6-7, 10, 118-19, 155-60 advocacy of unjustified positions, 119-20 contradiction of previous positions, 121 contradictory messages from other sources, 122-24 credibility of source, 24-25, 74-75, 118-29, 282, 285, 293 distrust of institutions, 63, 147 fair review of conflicting claims, 128-29, 149 justification offered for program, 126-27 legal standing of source, 125-26 legitimacy of process, 7, 119, 169 news media interactions, 138-39

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INDEX professional incompetence or impropriety, 124-25 public interaction and involvement, 10, 127-28, 151-55 reputation for deceit, 120-21 self-serving framing of information, 70, 121-22 Crime-prevention programs, 255 Crises, ace Emergencies "Critical experiment" artifact, 246 D Deception, 81, 82, 88, 89, 162; JCC also 120-21 Decision trees, 288 Deforestation, 59 Delaney clause, 284 Dietary information, 17, 58 Diethylstilbestrol (DES), 66, 255 Differential knowledge, 68-69, 71 Differing Professional Opinions, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 158 'discounting valuation measure, 49 Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of, 64 Drug information, 17 Drug production, 62 Drug testing, 40 Drug users, 136 EEarthquake likelihood, 237, 238 ECOFLO hazardous waste facility siting, 75-77 Edison Electric Institute, 115 ~ - Emergences advisories, 109 response planning, 128, 141, 218 responses, 7, 11, 134-35, 138, 145, 164-65 Emission control devices, 137 Energy Department, 113, 120 Energy policy/sources, 255, 256, 260, 275, 276 Energy Research and Development Administration, 91 Environmental Defense Fund, 112 Environmental degradation, 229 325 Environmental impact statements, 67 Environmental movement, 63-64 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 113, 165 credibility concerns, 119-20, 128, 147, 159, 160 EDB contamination, 6, 113, 122, 123, 129 information availability, 141-42 mandate, 64, 65, 125, 127 radon monitoring, 17, 90, 125, 127, 135-36 report requirements, 141 risk management strategies, 18 Environmental regulation, 57 Environmental threats, 56 Epidemiological studies, 42, 45, 58 Ethylene dibromide (EDB), 6, 106, 113-14, 122, 123, 129, 135, 222 Evaluation of communication programs, 11, 163, 291-98 Event-tree analysis, 238 Expectations and misconceptions, see Misconceptions about risk communication Expert judgment, 44-47, 271; 8CC also Risk assessment Expert knowledge, sec Scientific and technical knowledge Exposure estimates, 40-41 F Fault-tree analysis, 42, 221-22, 238 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 5 Federation of American Scientists, 67 Feedback, 163, 249, 250 Financial resources, 5, 114-15 Flood concerns, 235-36 Florida, 6, 113, 122 Focus groups, 159 Food additives, 284 Food and Drug Administration, 113, 160 Food contamination, 6, 113-14 Food production, 32, 62 Foreign affairs analysis, 248 Formaldehyde exposure, 121 Fragmented authority, 5, 112-14

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326 Framing information and decisions, 7, 83, 121-22, 130 Freedom of Information Act, 16 "Frequency of deaths measurement, 226 Fundamental attribution error, 235 Fungicides, 222 Gambler's fallacy, 130, 247 General Accounting Office, 91 Geological Survey, U.S., 237 Goal setting, 9, 150-51, 293-96 Government communication, 16-18, 144 Grain contamination, 6, 222 Greensboro, N.C., 75-77 Guilford County Hazardous Waste Task Force, 75, 76 H Happiness questions, 231-32 Hazardous substances report requirements, 141 see also specific substances Hazardous waste facility siting, 5, 75-77, 111, 128, 141 Hazards identification, 39-40, 257-58 increased social awareness, 54-62 qualification, 50-52, 97, 132-33 quantification, 1, 31-33 term defined, 32, 321 Health care, 62 Health information, 17 Health professionals, 139 Heart disease, 24 Herbicides, 32, 55-56 Highlighting facts, 82-83 Highway-safety legislation, 255 Hindsight, 233, 245-47, 279 Historical records, 237-38, 246-47 I Iceland, 237 Idaho, 113 INDEX Impact assessments, 38 Immunization campaigns, 246 Incompetence and impropriety, 7, 124-25 Industry communication, 17, 144 Influence techniques ambiguously worded questions, 228-33 appeals to authority, 84 appeals to emotion, 85 audience segmentation, 162 deception, 81, 82, 88, 89, 162 effects on credibility, 6, 119-20 framing information and decisions, 7, 83, 121-22, 130 highlighting facts, 82-83 legitimacy of purpose, 2-3, 11, 78-81, 87-93, 126-27, 168-70 persuasion, 17, 84, 283 procedural strategies to achieve balance, 2-3, 85-87 risk comparisons, 84 Information laypersons' specialized knowledge, 24-25, 68, 280 misconceptions about public's wants, 4, 101-2, 106, 234 public's right to be informed, 5, 16-17, 65, 110, 141-42, 297 em also Scientific and technical knowledge Informed consent, 5, 64, 110, 266, 285-86, 295, 297 Informing function, 81-82 Institute, W. Va., 110, 134 Institutional constraints, BCC Problems of risk communication Integrated pest management, 116 Interest group conflict, sec Social conflicts Interest stimulation, 7, 136-37 Int e rmed Aries credibility, 25 interacting with, 7, 139-40, 163-64 role analysis, 13, 180-81 Cc also Media for risk communication Interpersonal channels, 7, 140, 164 Involuntarily incurred risks, 35, 272-73

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INDEX J Jefferson, Thomas, 14-15, 168 Journalists, Cc Media for risk communication Judgment, Cc Risk assessment K Knowledge, sec Information; Scientific and technical knowledge Knowledge gap, 69 L Language and concepts clarity needed in, 1, 7, 11, 111, 129-31, 166-67 experts/laypeople, differing perceptions, 272-80 '`Laypeople," concept defined, 271 Lead solder, 31, 257 League of Women Voters, 178 Legal constraints, 5, 109-10, 255 Legal standing, 7, 125-26 Lethality judgments, 226-27 Liability, 5, 110 Life expectancy, 55, 56, 58, 259 Locally unwanted land uses (LULUs), 111, 141 Love Canal, 66, 11020, 135 Low-power research, 45, 244-45 M Malpractice concerns, 255, 297 Manipulation, Cc Influence techniques Manufacturing technology, 62 Massachusetts, 6, 113-14, 122 Materials and energy Bow diagrams, 222 Media for risk communication contradictory messages, 123 credibility of journalists, 139 credibility of sources, 138-39 interacting with, 11, 138, 160, 164 media identified, 1, 7, 23, 24, 137 misconceptions about role, 4, 102-6 role and responsibilities, 4, 137 Medical testing, 25s 327 Medical treatments, evaluation criteria, 292, 297 Mercury contamination, 222 Messages, 22; ecc Rio Risk messages Methyl isocyanate, 126 Middle East, 59 Military security, 62 Misconceptions about risk communication, 94-107 adequacy and meaning of information, 100-101 communication improvement/ conflict reduction, 95-96 interpretation of public attitudes, 4, 101-2, 106, 234 news media role, 103-6 overview, 3-4, 94-95 value of risk comparisons, 96-100 Missouri, 109 Modeling, 239-40, 242-43 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 109 Multi-attribute utility theory, 265 N National Agricultural Chemicals Association, 115 National Cancer Institute, 137 National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) Consensus Workshops, 86-87 National Conference on Risk Communication, 96 National Environmental Policy Act, 16, 64, 67 National Farmworkers Union, 115 National Flood Insurance Program, 236 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 121 National Research Council, 86, 87, 159 National Safety Council, 178 Natural Resources Defense Council, 112 Nature Conservancy, 63 Nevada testing, 120 New Deal, 65 News media, Cc Media for risk communication

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328 New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), 1 35-36 New York Times, 104 Nonlethal consequences, 1 No observed effect level (NOEL), 101 North Carolina, 75-77 Number of deaths measurement, 48 Nuclear power agency influence techniques, 91 benefit/risk comparisons, 32,256, 257 Chernobyl disaster, 61,66,122,300 NRC safety goals, 260, 284 public attitudes and knowledge, 57, 124, 234, 246-47,278,300, 302-3 risk analysis, 42,59, 218,220-21, 238, 272 social conflict, 308 Three Mile Island, 6G, 106, 134, 222, 247, 285, 300 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), 64, 134, 158, 260, 284, 285 Nuclear war, 59 Nuclear wastes, 257 Numerical judgments, 226-28 o Objectivity of judgments, 270-71 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 64, 110,113, 121,125 Ocean levels, 59 Office of Commurucation~ of the United Churek of Christ or. Fcdcral Communications Commi~eior`, 65 Oil embargo, 246 Oil industry, 255,280 Openness, 10, 134-35, 138,151-55 Overconfidence, 46-47, 250-253 Ozone layer, 56, 59, 91 p Partisan preview, 10, 159 Passive public, 101 Peer review, 10, 158-59, 237, 275 Personal action, 78-80,90 INDEX Personal responsibility, 285 Persuasion, 17,84,283 Pesticides, 32, 40, 55-56,115, 123, 129, 165 Petrochemicals, 62 Poisson distribution, 247 Policy issues, Cc Regulatory policy Poliomyelitis immunization, 246 Political constraints, sec Problems of risk communication Political opposition, 17 Power fragmentation, 5, 112-14 Power sharing, 5, 10, 17-18, 111-12, 154-55 Probability theory, 129-30, 247-48 Problems of risk communication, 108-42 deriving from institutional and political systems, 5-6,9, 108-16,145, 150,155 focusing attention, 7, 136-40 fragmented authority, 5, 112-14 imbalanced access to authority, 5-6,114-15 incomplete information, 7,133-36 legal considerations, 5,109-10 obtaining information, 7-8,141-42 overview, 4,108, 142 of risk communicators and recipients, 6-8,117-42 sharing of power, 5,10,17-18, 111-12, 154-55 systematic biases, 6,115-16 understandable language and concepts, 1, 7, 129-33 em ~80 Credibility concerns; Social conflicts Process management, 149-65, 282-98 conceptualizing communication programs, 286-91 crisis situations, 11, 164-65 evaluating communication programs, 11, 163, 291-98 fostering competence, 10-11, 160~4 objectives summarized, 9, 149-50 safeguarding balance and accuracy in risk messages, 10, 155-60 safeguarding openness, 10, 151-55 setting realistic goals, 9, 150-51 simple strategies, 283-86

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INDEX Professional incompetence and impropriety, 7, 124-2 5 Protective behavior, 235-36 Protocols, 219-24 Psychological principles, 299-304 Public, Cc Audience/Recipients Public debate, 72-77, gl-93 Public health professionals, 49 Public Health Service, 109 Public interest, 65 Public mistrust, Cc Credibility concerns Public opinion, 101-2; Cc also 228-33, 263-66, 269 Q Quantification of hazards, 31-33 R Radiation hazards, 255 Radioactive waste program, 120 Radon hazard, 17, 90, 125, 127, 135, 137, 288 Reactor Safety Study, 238, 249 Reagan administration, 157 Recipients, Cc Audience/Recipients Recommended improvements consumer's guide, 12-13, 176-79 content of messages, ecc Risk messages management of process, ecc Process management research needs, 13, 179-82 summary, 8-9, 143-49 Red Cross, 7 "Reduction in life expectancy measurement, 48 Regression analysis, 248, 267 Regulatory agencies, 64, 65 Regulatory policy alternatives to regulatory control, 18-19 desire or requirement to inform public, 16-17 measuring benefits, 262-68 measuring risk, 257-62 public participation, 65, 66 separating science and policy, 254-57, 268 329 Relevancy of risk message, 11, 13, 165-66, 181 Reliability analysis, 36-37, 46-47 Replication/reproducibility of results, 255, 270-71 Reporting requirements, 141 Reputation concerns, Cc Credibility concerns Research needs, 13, 179-82 Resource limitations, 145 Rhetorical techniques, 84 Right-to-know legislation, 5, 16, 65, 110, 141-42, 297 `'Risk,~ concept defined, 32, 130, 258-59, 321 Risk assessment, 30-53, 217-53 adherence to rules of science, 236-38 benefit assessment, 33-38, 262-68 checklist, 175, 222-24 definition, 321 errors in scientific judgment, 44-47, 130-31 expert judgment, quality assessed, 244-53, 270-71 expert judgment role, 238-44, 270 identification of problem, 217-24 improvement recommendations, 147 information needed for, 33-38, 257-62 knowledge gaps and uncertainties, 3-4, 38-44 overview of problems, 2, 30-31, 52-53 public's risk judgments, 226-28 public's value judgments, 228-33 quantification of hazards, 31-33 refining common sense, 233-36 relevant science identified, 224-26 separating facts and values, 254-57, 268, 271 steps comprising, 217 value judgments, 20, 47-52, 259-60 Risk characterization, 13, 33-38, 180 Risk communication consumer's guide, 12-13, 176-79 contemporaneous case assessment, 13, 182 definition and concept of, 2, 19-23, 282, 322

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330 improvement need, 14-16 motives, 16-19 recommended improvements summarized, 8-9, 143-49 success criterion, 2, 8, 21, 26-29, 74-75, 78-79, 94, 144-45 Risk communication process, sec Process management Risk communication problems, Cc Problems of risk communication Risk communication settings, 72-80 Risk communicator, 6, 117-42, 322; Cc also 162 Risk comparison, 96-100 improvement recommendations, 172-74 as influence tool, 84 research needs, 13, 180 usefulness/inadequacies, 3, 12, 96-100 Risk conflict, ace Social convicts Risk control assessment, 35-36, 322 Risk debates, 72-77, 117, 300, 303 Risk estimates, 41-44, 83 Risk ladders, 96-97, 174 Risk literacy, 13, 182 Risk magnitudes, 96 Risk management, 22 definition, 21, 322 improvement recommendations, 147-48 questions addressed in, 37 Cc also Process management Risk management controversy, Cc Social conflicts Risk messages audience shaping of, 282 comparing risks, 12, 96-100, 172-74 credibility, Cc Credibility concerns definition, 322 design procedures, 70-71, 86, 95 differential knowledge, 68-69 draft preview, 10, 159 ensuring completeness (checklist), 12, 174-76 examples of, 144 expert knowledge, 28-29 focus concerns, 25, 69 formulation difficulties, 1-2, 287-91 handling uncertainty, 12, 170-71 INDEX influence purpose, Cc Influence techniques information purpose, 80-82 relating to audience perspectives, 11,165-70 role in communication process, 21, 23-26 sources and media, 1, 7,23,24, 138-40,287,322 success criterion, 80 systematic biases, 6,115-16 understandable language and concepts, 7,129-33 values identification, 6 070 Risk monitoring, 247 Risk perception, 51-52,132 Rick quantification, 48-50,226-28, 259-60,272 S Saccharin, 274,279 St. Louis, Mo., 120 Sccmc Hudson Prcecrvation Cor~fcrcr~ce v. Federal Power Commueior`, 65 Science of risk, Cc Risk assessment Scientific Advisory Board, EPA, 128, 159 Scientific and technical knowledge access problems, 5, 7-8, 114-15, 141-42, 278-80 convict within scientific community, 67-68, 123-24, 279, 301 errors in judgment, 44-47 essential rules, 236-38 incomplete or uncertain information, 7, 12, 133-36, 17~71 misconceptions and unrealistic expect at ions concerning, 3-4 , 100-101 public mistrust, 70, 280 role in technological debates, 28-29, 67, 68, 73, 92 separating facts and values, 254-57, 268, 270-71 specialized talent requirements, 10-11, 162-63 understandable language and concepts, 129-33

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INDEX Seat belts, 19, 58, 137 Self-reliance, 285 Sensitivity analysis, 171 Sex information, 17 Sexual assault, 290 Shrinkage, 248 Side effects, 60 Sierra Club, 63,115 Silerd Spring (Carson), 63 Simulation models, 239-40 Sir~dell v. Abbott Laboratory, 66 Skepticism, see Credibility concerns Skiing, 272-73 Social convicts, 54-71, 269-81 conflicts identified, 54-57,254, 269-71,280-81 diagnostic guide, 211-12,214-16, 305-8 hazards and awareness changes, 57-62 implications for risk communication, 3, 20,68-71, 95-96,286 linguistic and conceptual differences, 272-80 politicization of technological debate, 64-68 societal changes, 62-64, 146 Social science cognitive processes summarized, 299-304 Justification for, 233-36 social theory development, 225-26 Socioeconomic changes, 62 Solar power, 255 Source credibility, Cc Credibility concerns Source of message, 1, 7, 23,24, 139-40,287, 322; ecu also Media for risk communication Standing, 7, 125-26 Statutory mandates, 5,109-10 Steel industry, 260 Stock market analysis, 45,247 Straw-man arguments, 84 Stress, 13, 181, 261 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, 16,110, 141-42 surveys, 154, 228-33, 263-66, 269 Symbolic events, 66-67 331 Synergistic effects, 42, 43, 56 Systematic biases, 6, 115-16 T Tacoma, Wash., 18 Technical knowledge, Cc Scientific and technical knowledge Technology, dependence on, 62-63 Technology Assessment, Office of, 64 Technology assessments, 38 Television, sec Media for risk communication Three Mile Island, 66, 106, 134, 222, 247, 285, 300 Times Beach, Mo., 109 Tobacco Institute, 115 Tobacco smoking, 22, 58, 133 public policy, 73, 78, 90 risk messages, 24, 85, 115, 137 Tort law, 65-66 Toxic exposure cases, 110 Toxicity studies, 39-40, 219 Toxic Substance Control Act, 40 Training need, 47, 249 Transportation technology, 62 Trust, Cc Credibility concerns Tylenol poisonings, 134 Typhoid, 31, 56 U Union Carbide Co., 110, 126, 134, 285 Unwarranted concern, 293-95 Uranium mining, 255 V Value judgments, 47, 86, 157 conflict generated by, 20, 69-70 expressed preferences, 263-66 hazard qualification, 50-52 message sensitivity to, 132-33 revealed preferences, 266-68, 284 risk quantification, 48-50, 259-60, 302-3 separating facts and values, 254-57, 268, 271 survey questions formulation, 228-33 Vested interests, 69

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332 Vietnam War, 63 Vitamin restrictions, 19 Voluntarily incurred risks, 272-73 W Wall Strect Journal, 104 Washington, 18 INDEX Washington Post, 122 Water contamination, 30-32, 56, 113 Watergate scandal, 63, 66 Weather forecasts, 46-47, 249 West Virginia, 110, 134 White papers, 10, 159-60, 176 Worry threshold, 173