B
Participant Biographies

LENNARD A. FISK, Chair, is the Thomas M. Donahue Distinguished University Professor of Space Science in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan. He is an active researcher in both theoretical and experimental studies of the solar atmosphere and its expansion into space to form the heliosphere. From 1987 to 1993, Dr. Fisk was the associate administrator for space science and applications and chief scientist of NASA. From 1977 to 1987, Dr. Fisk served as professor of physics and vice president for research and financial affairs at the University of New Hampshire. He is a member of the board of directors of the Orbital Sciences Corporation and co-founder of the Michigan Aerospace Corporation. He is currently chair of the Space Studies Board.


A. THOMAS YOUNG, Vice Chair, is retired executive vice president of Lockheed Martin. Mr. Young previously was president and chief operating officer of Martin Marietta Corp. Prior to joining industry, Mr. Young worked for 21 years at NASA, where he directed the Goddard Space Flight Center, was deputy director of the Ames Research Center, and directed the Planetary Program in the Office of Space Science at NASA headquarters. Mr. Young received high acclaim for his technical leadership in organizing and directing national space and defense programs, especially the Viking program. He is currently vice chair of the Space Studies Board, and he served on the recent decadal survey steering committee for solar system exploration.


JACK D. FELLOWS, workshop rapporteur, is vice president for corporate affairs at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and



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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop B Participant Biographies LENNARD A. FISK, Chair, is the Thomas M. Donahue Distinguished University Professor of Space Science in the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan. He is an active researcher in both theoretical and experimental studies of the solar atmosphere and its expansion into space to form the heliosphere. From 1987 to 1993, Dr. Fisk was the associate administrator for space science and applications and chief scientist of NASA. From 1977 to 1987, Dr. Fisk served as professor of physics and vice president for research and financial affairs at the University of New Hampshire. He is a member of the board of directors of the Orbital Sciences Corporation and co-founder of the Michigan Aerospace Corporation. He is currently chair of the Space Studies Board. A. THOMAS YOUNG, Vice Chair, is retired executive vice president of Lockheed Martin. Mr. Young previously was president and chief operating officer of Martin Marietta Corp. Prior to joining industry, Mr. Young worked for 21 years at NASA, where he directed the Goddard Space Flight Center, was deputy director of the Ames Research Center, and directed the Planetary Program in the Office of Space Science at NASA headquarters. Mr. Young received high acclaim for his technical leadership in organizing and directing national space and defense programs, especially the Viking program. He is currently vice chair of the Space Studies Board, and he served on the recent decadal survey steering committee for solar system exploration. JACK D. FELLOWS, workshop rapporteur, is vice president for corporate affairs at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and

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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop the director of UCAR’s Office of Programs. Before joining UCAR in 1997 he spent 13 years at the Office of Management and Budget overseeing budget and policy issues related to NASA, the National Science Foundation, and federal-government-wide R&D programs. In 1984, he spent a year in the U.S. Congress as the American Geophysical Union’s (AGU’s) Congressional Science Fellow. He is a member of the Space Studies Board. JOSEPH K. ALEXANDER, workshop study director, is a senior staff officer with the Space Studies Board, where he served as director from 1998 to 2005. He earlier was deputy assistant administrator for science in the Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, associate director of space sciences at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and assistant associate administrator for space sciences and applications in the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications. Other positions included deputy NASA chief scientist and senior policy analyst at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Mr. Alexander’s own research work has been in radioastronomy and space physics. WILLIAM B. ADKINS is president of Adkins Strategies, a Washington, D.C., space and defense consulting and government relations firm. He is a former staff director of the Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics of the House Science Committee. Prior to joining the subcommittee, he was a legislative assistant and national security fellow in the U.S. Senate for Senator Spencer Abraham where he handled national security, military, and space policy issues. Mr. Adkins has also worked at the Naval Research Laboratory and the National Reconnaissance Office. MARC S. ALLEN is senior scientist for physics and astronomy in NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, and he currently leads the policy and plans group within the directorate’s Management and Policy Division. He served formerly as assistant associate administrator (strategy, policy, and international) within the directorate. Before coming to NASA in late 1997, he served for 7 years as director of the Space Studies Board. Previously, he held management positions at CTA Incorporated and Computer Sciences Corporation, working at NASA’s Langley Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center. His first career was research in solar physics and stellar spectroscopy. SPIRO K. ANTIOCHOS, an astrophysicist, is head of the Solar Theory Section, Space Science Division at the Naval Research Laboratory, and adjunct professor, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan. His areas of expertise include theoretical solar physics, plasma physics, and computational physics. He served as chair of the Solar Physics

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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop Division, American Astronomical Society (AAS) (1991-1993), and he is now a member of the Space Studies Board. DANIEL N. BAKER is director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, a professor of astrophysical and planetary sciences, director of the Center for Limb Atmospheric Sounding, and a member of the Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, all at the University of Colorado. His primary research interest is the study of plasma physical and energetic particle phenomena in the planetary magnetospheres and in Earth’s magnetosphere. Dr. Baker joined the physics research staff at Los Alamos National Laboratory, became leader of the Space Plasma Physics Group in 1981, and from 1987 to 1994, he was chief of the Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. He is a member of the Space Studies Board and he served on the recent decadal survey committee for solar and space physics. STEVEN J. BATTEL is president of Battel Engineering, which provides engineering, development, and review services to NASA, Department of Defense, and academic and industrial clients. He was a member of the Hubble Space Telescope external readiness review team for SM-2, SM-3A, and SM-3B, the AXAF/Chandra independent assessment team, the TDRS-H/I/J independent review team, the Mars Polar Lander failure review board, and the JPL Genesis failure review board, and he has served on review teams for many other space missions. He has worked as an engineer, researcher, and manager at the University of Michigan, the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory prior to becoming president of Battel Engineering. He is a member of the Space Studies Board. CLAUDETTE K. BAYLOR-FLEMING is the administrative assistant to the director of the Space Studies Board. She came to the NRC in 1988, working first as senior secretary for the Institute of Medicine’s Division of Health Sciences Policy and then the Board on Global Change, where she spent 7 years as the administrative/financial assistant. Ms. Baylor-Fleming has completed certificate programs at the Catholic University of America in Web technologies and at Trinity College Washington in information technology applications. RICHARD BEHNKE is head of the National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) upper atmosphere research section, which funds aeronomic, ionospheric, magnetospheric, and solar research. He is co-chair of the Committee for Space Weather, which directs the National Space Weather Program. Prior to coming to NSF he was a senior research scientist at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. Dr. Behnke’s research interests are in the area of upper ionospheric dynamics, principally using incoherent scatter. He has a bachelor’s degree in physics and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in space science, all from Rice University.

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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop MICHAEL BELTON is president of Belton Space Exploration Initiatives, LLC, in Tucson, Arizona, and was previously an astronomer at the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. He is an expert in cometary physics and specializes in ground-based telescopic and space-based observations and interpretation. He has participated in the Mariner Venus/Mercury, Voyager, Galileo, and Deep Impact flight missions. Belton is a past chair of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the AAS, and he chaired the first decadal survey study of solar system exploration. CHARLES L. BENNETT is a professor of physics and astronomy at Johns Hopkins University. He leads the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission as the principal investigator (PI). Previous to his work on WMAP, Dr. Bennett was the deputy PI of the Differential Microwave Radiometers instrument and a member of the science team of the Cosmic Background Explorer mission. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a fellow of the American Physical Society. He received the Harvey Prize in 2006 and the Draper Medal of the NAS in 2005. He is a member of the Space Studies Board. JOSEPH A. BURNS is the Irving Porter Church Professor of Engineering, a professor of astronomy, and the vice provost of physical sciences and engineering at Cornell University. His current research concerns planetary rings and the small bodies of the solar system (dust, satellites, comets, and asteroids). He is the senior vice president of the AAS, having previously chaired the Division for Planetary Science (DPS) and the Division on Dynamical Astronomy. Burns is a fellow of the AGU and the AAAS, a member of the International Academy of Astronautics, and a foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1994 he received the DPS Masursky Prize. He is a former member of the Space Studies Board, and he served on the recent decadal survey steering committee for solar system exploration. JOHN R. CASANI is special assistant to the director at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). During his long career in project management and system engineering he has served as project manager for the Voyager mission to the outer planets, the Galileo mission to Jupiter, and the Cassini mission to Saturn, and he held project positions in JPL’s early Explorer, Pioneer, Ranger, and Mariner space missions. He has received NASA’s Distinguished Service, Outstanding Leadership, and Exceptional Achievement medals; the Space Systems Award from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics; the von Karman Lectureship in Astronautics; and the National Space Club’s Astronaut’s Engineer Award. CARMELA J. CHAMBERLAIN is a program associate with the Space Studies Board. She joined the NRC in 1974 as a senior project assistant in the Institute for Laboratory Animals for Research, which is now a board in the Division on

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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop Earth and Life Sciences, where she worked for 2 years, and then transferred to the Space Science Board. ARTHUR A. CHARO directs the activities of the Space Studies Board’s Committee on Earth Studies and Committee on Solar and Space Physics, as well as the decadal survey steering committee for Earth Science and Applications from Space. He worked on national security and arms control topics at Harvard University’s Center for Science and International Affairs and in the International Security and Space Program in the U.S. Congress’s Office of Technology Assessment. Dr. Charo is a recipient of a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in International Security and was an American Institute of Physics Congressional Science Fellow. He is the author of research papers in the field of molecular spectroscopy and the monograph Continental Air Defense: A Neglected Dimension of Strategic Defense. MARY CLEAVE is the associate administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. A scientist with training in civil and environmental engineering as well as biological sciences and microbial ecology, Dr. Cleave most recently served as deputy associate administrator (advanced planning) in the Office of Earth Science at NASA Headquarters. In 1991 she joined NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, where she worked as the project manager for SeaWiFS, an ocean color sensor that monitors vegetation globally. A veteran of two space shuttle flights, Dr. Cleave flew as a mission specialist aboard STS-61B in 1985 and STS-30 in 1989. JUDITH A. CURRY is chair of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Her research interests include remote sensing, climate of the polar regions, atmospheric modeling, and air/sea interactions. She participates in the World Meteorological Organization’s World Climate Research Program, was a member of the Science Steering Group of the Arctic Climate System Program, and chairs the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud System Studies Working Group on Polar Clouds. She is a member of the Space Studies Board. BRIAN D. DEWHURST is a senior program associate with the NRC Board on Physics and Astronomy. He is the staff officer and study director for a variety of NRC activities, including the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Committee on Radio Frequencies, and other astronomy-oriented tasks. He received a B.A. in astronomy and history from the University of Virginia in 2000 and an M.A. in science, technology, and public policy from George Washington University in 2002. GERALD J. DITTBERNER is head of Advanced Technology Studies for NOAA/NESDIS where he manages concept studies and engineering research

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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop into new technologies for space-based systems in support of NOAA’s overall observing systems architecture. Previously, he was NOAA’s GOES program manager. He completed 21 years as an Air Force meteorologist, 10 years in aerospace industry, and has been at NOAA since 1995. Dr. Dittberner earned a bachelor’s in electrical engineering, a master’s in meteorology and space science and engineering, and a doctorate in meteorology (climatology) from the University of Wisconsin. JACK D. FARMER is a professor in the Department of Geological Sciences at Arizona State University. He previously worked as a research scientist in the exobiology branch of NASA Ames Research Center. His areas of research cover microbial biosedimentology and paleontology; early biosphere evolution; and astrobiology, specifically aimed at understanding the factors that control biosignature preservation. Dr. Farmer was a member of NASA’s 2003 Mars Landing Site Steering Committee, a member of the science definition teams for the Mars 2001 and 2005 missions, and chair of the Life Subgroup for NASA’s Mars Exploration Program (now Payload) Advisory Group. RICHARD FISHER is director of the Heliophysics Division in NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. Before joining NASA headquarters in 2002, he served as chief of the Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics at the Goddard Space Flight Center. He has been a principal investigator or mission scientist for several major ground and spaceflight instruments (first at the NCAR High Altitude Observatory and later at NASA Goddard) and payload scientist for five space shuttle missions. His research interests include research on topics of solar magnetic evolution and the solar corona; especially as they relate to the physical characteristics and physical processes of the outer layers of the Sun and the impact on humanity and technology. CRAIG FOLTZ is the lead for Large Facilities and MREFC-class projects for the Division of Astronomical Sciences of the NSF. He is the program manager for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and the Gemini Observatory and serves on a number of standing panels and working groups related to large facilities and projects. Prior to coming to the NSF in 2003, he was the director of the Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona. His research interests include studies of the space distribution of quasars, the intergalactic medium, and astronomical instrumentation. CLAUDE FREANER has been at NASA Headquarters for 12 years, starting in the Systems and Cost Analysis Division, Office of the Chief Financial Officer, and then in Office of Earth Science, and currently the Science Mission Directorate (SMD). Mr. Freaner develops independent cost estimates for SMD projects, over-

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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop sees all cost analysis activities for directorate projects, and has recently been assigned as the SMD EVM Focal Point Council representative. Prior to this, he worked for 17 years at General Dynamics Space Systems as a cost analysis and EVM cost account manager, and as a Navy officer for 10 years. JAMES L. GREEN is acting director of the Planetary Science Division in NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. He has served previously at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as head of the National Space Science Data Center, chief of the Space Science Data Operations Office, and most recently as chief of the Science Proposal Support Office. Dr. Green’s major activities in space science research have involved various aspects of magnetospheric physics. PAUL HERTZ is the chief scientist in the Science Mission Directorate at NASA. He has previously served as assistant associate administrator for science, senior scientist in astronomy and physics, senior scientist for space science research, and program scientist or program executive for a number of NASA programs including the Explorer Program, the Beyond Einstein Program, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the SOFIA airborne observatory, and the Galileo mission. Prior to joining NASA, Dr. Hertz was a research astrophysicist with the Naval Research Laboratory. JACQUELINE N. HEWITT, professor of physics, is the director of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research. The focus of her research is to apply the techniques of radioastronomy, interferometry, and signal processing to basic research in astrophysics and cosmology. Her honors include the American Physical Society’s Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award, the International Union of Radio Science’s Henry G. Booker Prize, the NSF’s Presidential Young Investigator Award, and the Annie Jump Cannon Award in astronomy. Dr. Hewitt is a fellow of the American Physical Society and has also been a David and Lucile Packard Fellow and an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow. She is a member of the Space Studies Board. NOEL HINNERS is a senior research associate at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics and lecturer on space policy at the University of Colorado. He retired in January 2002 from Lockheed Martin Astronautics where he was vice president of light systems. Dr. Hinners served as an associate deputy administrator and the NASA chief scientist (1987-1989); director of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (1982-1987); director of the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum (1979-1982); NASA associate administrator for space science (1974-1979); and director of NASA’s Lunar Programs (1972-1974). RICHARD J. HOWARD is acting director of the Astrophysics Division in NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. He joined NASA Headquarters in 1991

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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop and became associate director of astronomy and physics in 2001 and, later, deputy director of the Universe/Astrophysics Division. Prior to joining NASA, he worked at NASA’s JPL on advanced microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing systems and at the California Institute of Technology as site manager during the development and initial operations of the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. TAMARA E. JERNIGAN is principal deputy associate director in the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. She is a veteran of five space shuttle missions where she supervised the pre-flight planning and in-flight execution of critical activities aboard STS-40, -52, -67, -80, and -96. Dr. Jernigan served as mission specialist on the first dedicated Life Sciences mission, STS-40, and as payload commander of STS-67. She has served as deputy chief of the Astronaut Office and as deputy for the Space Station program. She is a member of the Space Studies Board. MARY ELLEN KICZA is the deputy assistant administrator for satellite and information services at NOAA. She previously served at NASA as a program manager, deputy director of the Solar System Exploration Division, assistant associate administrator for space science, associate center director for Goddard Space Flight Center, associate administrator for biological/physical research, and most recently as the associate deputy administrator for systems integration. She began her career as a software engineer at McClellan Air Force Base and then joined NASA’s Kennedy Space Center where she served as a lead engineer participating in the preparation of Atlas Centaur and Shuttle Centaur launch vehicles in support of NASA, DOD, and NOAA satellites. LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI is Distinguished Research Professor at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT). His research focuses on geophysics and space plasma physics as related to planetary magnetospheres, energetic particles emitted by the sun, and the engineering impacts of natural and artificial space phenomena on space and terrestrial technologies. Prior to joining NJIT in 2003, Dr. Lanzerotti spent nearly four decades at Bell Laboratories-Lucent Technologies. He is a recipient of the NASA Distinguished Scientific Achievement Medal, the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal, and the William Nordberg Medal for space science from COSPAR. He is the founding editor of the AGU publication Space Weather, The International Journal of Research and Applications. He is a current member of the National Science Board and he is a former chair of the Space Studies Board and of the solar and space physics decadal survey committee. LAURIE LESHIN is director of sciences and exploration at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Before joining NASA in 2005, Dr. Leshin was the Dee and

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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop John Whiteman Dean’s Distinguished Professor of Geological Sciences and the director of the Center for Meteorites Studies at Arizona State University. Dr. Leshin is a cosmochemist primarily interested in deciphering the record of water on objects in our solar system, including the use of meteorites from Mars to assess the history of water and the potential for life on the planet. In 1996, she was the inaugural recipient of the Meteoritical Society’s Nier Prize, awarded for outstanding research in meteoritics or planetary science by a scientist under the age of 35. In 2004 she served on the President’s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy. JOHANNES LOSCHNIGG is staff director of the House Committee on Science Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics. He first came to Capitol Hill as an AAAS congressional science and technology policy fellow in 2002, and was hired as professional staff in May 2004. Dr. Loschnigg previously served as a postdoctoral research fellow and then as a faculty member at the University of Hawaii’s School of Ocean, Earth Science, and Technology in Honolulu. BRUCE D. MARCUS is retired from TRW, where he was chief scientist and manager of Advanced Programs for the Space and Laser Programs Division. His research background includes heat and mass transfer, heat pipes, thermosiphons, spacecraft thermal control, and thermomechanical design of telescopes. Dr. Marcus’s background also includes extensive experience in space systems program management. He is a former member of the Space Studies Board and a current member of the decadal survey steering committee for Earth sciences and applications from space. CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE is chair of the Department of Physics and professor of physics and of astronomy at the University of California, Berkeley. His research focuses on the theory of physical processes in the interstellar medium, the diffuse gas between the stars. Dr. McKee’s NRC service includes membership on the 1991 NRC Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee and co-chair of the 2000 Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, which conducted the most recent decadal survey in astronomy and astrophysics. Dr. McKee is a former member of the Space Studies Board, and he is currently a member of the Board on Physics and Astronomy. BERRIEN MOORE III is professor and director of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space at the University of New Hampshire. Dr. Moore’s research focuses on the carbon cycle, global biogeochemical cycles, and global change as well as policy issues in the area of the global environment. He led the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Task Force on Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modeling, prior to serving as chair of the overarching Scientific Committee of the IGBP. He chaired the July 2001 Open Science

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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop Conference on Global Change in Amsterdam and is one of the four architects of the Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change. He is a member of the Space Studies Board and chair of the decadal survey steering committee for Earth science and applications from space. JON MORSE is a senior policy analyst in the Science Division of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. He is a former member of the faculty of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Arizona State University. He is an astronomer whose research activities have included the use of the HST, FUSE, and Chandra space observatories to study star formation, high-mass stars, supernovas and supernova remnants, and active galaxies. KENNETH H. NEALSON is the Wrigley Professor of Geobiology at the University of Southern California. His research interests focus on environmental microbiology and biogeochemistry and as such have led to methods that are now being interfaced with the study of organisms in extreme environments, and with upcoming missions, both for in situ life detection and for analysis of samples returned from Mars in future missions. Dr. Nealson previously served as a senior scientist at NASA’s JPL and as a professor at the Center for Great Lakes Studies of the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. SUZANNE OPARIL is a professor of medicine, physiology, and biophysics and director of the Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program in the Division of Cardiovascular Disease at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Dr. Oparil is an active investigator in the laboratory, as well as in the clinical setting, and directs a large basic and clinical research group in vascular biology and hypertension. She has served as president of the American Federation of Clinical Research and as chair of the Public Policy Committee of that organization. Dr. Oparil is also a member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation and the Association of American Physicians. She is a member of the Space Studies Board. ROBERT PALMER is an expert on science policy. He was a staff director for the U.S. House of Representatives’ Committee on Science, serving in that capacity for 12 years until his retirement in January 2005. During his 26 years of total service on the Science Committee, he was the committee’s lead staff member involved in analyzing federal R&D budgets and in interacting with the House and Senate Appropriations Committees. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Delaware in marine biology. GEORGE A. PAULIKAS retired in 1998 after 37 years at the Aerospace Corporation after serving as a member of the technical staff, department head, laboratory director, vice president, senior vice president, and executive vice president,

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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop during which time he made many technical contributions to the development of national security space systems. He is a recipient of the National Reconnaissance Office’s Gold Medal and the Aerospace Corporation Trustees’ Distinguished Achievement Award. He is a former vice chair of the Space Studies Board. JAMES PAWELCZYK is a physiologist at Pennsylvania State University. He was a payload specialist on the Space Transportation System-90 (Neurolab) mission which flew in 1998 with a focus on neuroscience. He has been an individual PI and project leader in space life sciences since 1993. Dr. Pawelczyk’s research areas include central neural control of the cardiovascular system and compensatory mechanisms for conditioning and deconditioning. He is a member of the Space Studies Board. TANJA E. PILZAK is the administrative coordinator for the Space Studies Board. She came to the SSB from the Division on Earth and Life Studies where she was a research associate for 5 years in the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources. She holds an M.S. in environmental management and a B.S. in natural resources management from the University of Maryland College Park. RONALD F. PROBSTEIN is the Ford Professor of Engineering, Emeritus, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His career is centered on scientific applications of fluid mechanics, both theoretical and experimental, to numerous areas of conceptual, economic, or societal importance, including hypersonics, rarefied gas dynamics, dust comets, desalination, physicochemical hydrodynamics, synthetic fuels, in situ soil remediation with electric fields, and slurry rheology. Dr. Probstein has carried out fundamental and applied studies of hypersonic and physicochemical flows, research on hypersonic viscous and rarefied gas flows, and studies of hypersonic wakes in dust comet tails. He is a member of the Space Studies Board. GARY RAWITSCHER is a senior analyst in the Management and Policy Division of NASA’s SMD. His responsibilities include reviewing the management and performance of SMD programs and projects and participating in the development of agency-wide program and project management processes and requirements. He worked previously in the Resources Analysis Division in the NASA Chief Financial Office for 11 years, including 2 years as acting deputy director of the division. Prior to that, he was a budget examiner in the National Security Division of the Office of Management and Budget. ROBERT L. RIEMER has served as senior program officer for the two most recent NRC decadal surveys of astronomy and astrophysics and has worked on studies in many areas of physics and astronomy for the Board on Physics and

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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop Astronomy (where he served as associate director from 1988 to 2000) and the Space Studies Board. Prior to joining the NRC, Dr. Riemer was a senior project geophysicist with Chevron Corporation. He received his Ph.D. in experimental high-energy physics from the University of Kansas-Lawrence. DONALD C. SHAPERO is director of the NRC Board on Physics and Astronomy. Prior to joining the NRC in 1975 he was a Thomas J. Watson Postdoctoral Fellow at IBM and a faculty member at American University and Catholic University. He took a leave of absence from the NRC in 1978 to serve as the first executive director of the Energy Research Advisory Board at the Department of Energy. He has published research articles in refereed journals in high-energy physics, condensed-matter physics, and environmental science. DAVID H. SMITH is a senior staff officer and study director for a variety of NRC activities, including the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration and the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life. After receiving a B.Sc. in mathematical physics from the University of Liverpool and a D.Phil. in theoretical astrophysics from Sussex University, he held the position of associate editor and, later, technical editor of Sky and Telescope and was a Knight Science Journalism Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He directed the recent NRC decadal survey for solar system exploration. MARCIA S. SMITH is the director of the Space Studies Board. Prior to joining the SSB in March 2006, she was a senior-level specialist in aerospace and telecommunications policy for the Resources, Science, and Industry Division of the Congressional Research Service (CRS) at the Library of Congress. She had been with CRS since 1975, serving as a policy analyst for the members and committees of the U.S. Congress on matters concerning U.S. and foreign military and civilian space activities, and on telecommunications issues and on nuclear energy. From 1985 to 1986, Ms. Smith took a leave of absence to serve as executive director of the U.S. National Commission on Space. She is the North American editor for the quarterly journal Space Policy. She is a fellow of both the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the American Astronautical Society. EDWARD C. STONE is the David Morrisroe Professor of Physics and vice provost for special projects at the California Institute of Technology. He was formerly the director of the JPL, chair of the board of directors of the California Association for Research in Astronomy, and director of the W.M. Keck Foundation. He has served as the project scientist for the Voyager Mission since 1972 and coordinated the efforts of 11 teams of scientists in their studies of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. He is a recipient of the National Medal of Science, the American Philosophical Society Magellanic Award, the American Academy of Achievement Golden Plate Award, and the COSPAR Award for Outstanding

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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop Contribution to Space Science. He is the U.S. representative to COSPAR and a former member of the Space Studies Board. JUDITH S. SUNLEY is the acting assistant director for mathematical and physical sciences at the National Science Foundation. She has previously served at the NSF as senior advisor to the director, interim assistant director for education and human resources, executive officer of the Mathematical and Physical Sciences Division, and division director for mathematical sciences. HARVEY D. TANANBAUM is director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory’s Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). He was project scientist for the Uhuru X-ray Satellite and served as the scientific program manager for the Einstein Observatory, the first large imaging x-ray telescope. In 1981 Dr. Tananbaum became associate director for high energy astrophysics at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, a position he held for 12 years. In 1991, he was appointed director of the CXC. Dr. Tananbaum is a fellow of the AAAS and has served as vice-president of the AAS. He is a member of the Space Studies Board. MICHAEL TURNER is the Rauner Distinguished Service Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Chicago and a senior scientist at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. He served as NSF assistant director for mathematical and physical sciences from 2003 to 2005. His research focuses on the application of modern ideas in elementary particle theory to cosmology and astrophysics. Dr. Turner chaired the NRC Committee on the Physics of the Universe, which in 2003 published Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos, and he was a member of the most recent decadal survey for astronomy and astrophysics. Dr. Turner has been honored with the Helen B. Warner Prize of the AAS, the Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize of the APS, the Halley Lectureship at Oxford University, the Klopsteg Lecture Award of the AAPT, and the Quantrell Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching at the University of Chicago. C. MEGAN URRY is the director of the Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics. She is the former head of the Science Program Selection Office at the Space Telescope Science Institute. Her research is conducted through theory and observation, with specific interests in multiple wavelengths, including active/interacting galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and supermassive black holes. In addition, she is actively involved in association work, specifically, women in astronomy. She is currently co-chair of the NRC Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, and she is a past member of the Space Studies Board. JOSEPH F. VEVERKA is a professor of astronomy and chair of the Astronomy Department at Cornell University. His research focuses on the use of spacecraft

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Decadal Science Strategy Surveys: Report of a Workshop imaging data to identify the important processes that have affected the evolution of small bodies in the solar system. Recent subjects of his research include the asteroids Gaspra and Ida, Ida’s satellite Dactyl, the asteroid 433 Eros, Mars, Neptune’s moon Triton, and the polar caps of Jupiter’s Galilean satellites. He is a member of the Space Studies Board. WARREN M. WASHINGTON is a senior scientist and head of the Climate Change Research Section in the Climate and Global Dynamics Division at NCAR. Dr. Washington’s areas of expertise are atmospheric science and climate research, and he specializes in computer modeling of the Earth’s climate. From 1978 to 1984, he served on the President’s National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere. In 1998, he was appointed to NOAA’s Science Advisory Board. In 2002, he was appointed to the Science Advisory Panel of the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy and the National Academies Coordinating Committee on Global Change. He is a member of the Space Studies Board and of the decadal survey steering committee for Earth science and applications from space. GARY P. ZANK is a professor of physics and the director of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the University of California, Riverside. He was formerly with the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware. His research interests are wide-ranging, covering space physics, astrophysics, and laboratory plasma physics. Dr. Zank is the recipient of an NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award, and the Zeldovich Medal that is awarded jointly by the Russian Academy of Sciences and COSPAR, and a fellow of the AAAS. He is a member of the Space Studies Board. MARY BETH ZIMMERMAN is a lead program analyst for planning and performance in NASA’s Office of Program Analysis and Evaluation. She joined NASA after a 10-year tenure at the Department of Energy, where she served as an economist in the Office of Policy and was the lead analyst for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. While at the Department of Energy, Ms. Zimmerman assessed the costs of energy and climate change policies and research and technology programs.