FIGURE 5.1 Map of Mali showing some of the primary geopolitical areas. The broad opaque band across the map represents the Sahel—the border region to the Sahara Desert in the north of Africa. SOURCE: Used with permission from

the world in terms of combined factors of longevity, health, education, and living standards for the population. Approximately 64 percent of Mali’s population lives below the country’s poverty line (UNDP, 2005b). Much of Mali’s population thus falls under the definition of “vulnerable” or at-risk as defined in Chapter 1. Two crises are discussed for Mali in this chapter: a locust infestation and a civil rebellion. These crises became humanitarian disasters affecting vulnerable groups of people and demonstrate how both natural and human-induced events exerted pressure on subnational populations in terms of food security, health, and economic stability. This discussion of Mali draws heavily from Konaté (2007; see also Appendix E), in a technical paper prepared specifically for the committee.

Locust Invasion of 2004. Beginning in June of 2004 during the agricultural season, the first swarms of desert locusts moved from the spring breeding grounds in Morocco and Algeria to the Sahel. Intensive control operations in Northwest Africa, mounted by the relatively resource-rich countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya,

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