APPENDIX A
Acronyms and Glossary

ORGANIZATIONS, PROGRAMS, STUDIES

AAP American Academy of Pediatrics

ABA American Beverage Association

AHA American Heart Association

AMA American Medical Association

ASFSA American School Food Service Association

CACFP Child and Adult Care Food Program

CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CFR Code of Federal Regulations

CFSAN Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration

CNP Child Nutrition Programs, U.S. Department of Agriculture

CSFII Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals

CSHP Coordinated School Health Program

CSPI Center for Science in the Public Interest

DASH Division of Adolescent and School Health, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

DGA (or DG) Dietary Guidelines for Americans

DHHS Department of Health and Human Services

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization



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appendix A Acronyms and Glossary ORGANIZATIONS, PROGRAMS, STUDIES AAP American Academy of Pediatrics ABA American Beverage Association AHA American Heart Association AMA American Medical Association ASFSA American School Food Service Association CACFP Child and Adult Care Food Program CDC Center for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services CFR Code of Federal Regulations CFSAN Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration CNP Child Nutrition Programs, U.S. Department of Agriculture CSFII Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals CSHP Coordinated School Health Program CSPI Center for Science in the Public Interest DASH Division of Adolescent and School Health, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services DGA (or DG) Dietary Guidelines for Americans DHHS Department of Health and Human Services FAO Food and Agriculture Organization 

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 NUTRITION STANDARDS FOR FOODS IN SCHOOLS FDA Food and Drug Administration FNB Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine FNS Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture GAO Government Accountability Office HPTS Health Policy Tracking Service IDFA International Dairy Foods Association IOM Institute of Medicine, The National Academies LEAF Linking Education, Activity, and Food Evaluation Report NANA National Alliance for Nutrition and Activity NAS National Academy of Sciences, The National Academies NASBE National Association of State Boards of Education NASPE National Association for Sport and Physical Education NCI National Cancer Institute NCLB No Child Left Behind NDL Nutrient Data Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture NDS-R Nutrient Data System for Research NFCS Nationwide Food Consumption Survey NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NIH National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services NSBA National School Boards Association NSDA National Soft Drink Association NSLP National School Lunch Program PCRM Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine RWJ Robert Wood Johnson Foundation SBP School Breakfast Program SFA School Food Authority SHHPS School Health Policies and Programs SNA School Nutrition Association SNDA-1 School Nutrition Dietary Assessment SNE Society for Nutrition Education SR-17 Standard Reference 17, Nutrient Data Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture SR-18 Standard Reference 18, Nutrient Data Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture WHO World Health Organization WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children

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 APPENDIX A TERMS AI Adequate intake BMI Body mass index c Cup or cups CVD Cardiovascular disease d Day or days DRI Dietary Reference Intakes EAR Estimated Average Requirement EER Estimated Energy Requirement fl oz Fluid ounce or fluid ounces FMNV Foods of Minimal Nutritional Value FY Fiscal year g Gram or grams hr Hour or hours kcal Kilocalorie or kilocalories kg Kilogram or kilograms L Liter or liters lb Pound or pounds LD Licensed Dietitian LDL Low-density lipoprotein or lipoproteins mg Milligram or milligrams mL Milliliter or milliliters mo Month or months n Sample size N/A Not applicable ND Not determined oz Ounce or ounces oz equiv Ounce-equivalent PA Physical activity PAL Physical activity level qt Quart or quarts RD Registered Dietitian RDA Recommended Dietary Allowances SFA School Food Authority T2D Type 2 Diabetes tsp Teaspoon or teaspoons yr year

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 NUTRITION STANDARDS FOR FOODS IN SCHOOLS GLOSSARY Alkaloid compounds—Naturally occurring nitrogenous compound, usually of plant origin. Insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents and can precipitate proteins. Aspartame—A low calorie nonnutritive sweetener made of aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It should not be consumed by individuals with phenylketonuria, and is unsuitable for cooking because its flavor is changed when heated. Atherosclerosis—A form of arteriosclerosis in which atheromas (a mass or plaque of degenerated thickened arterial intima) containing cholesterol, lipid material, and lipophages are formed within the intima and inner media of large and medium-sized arteries. Beta-carotene—A yellow-orange pigment found in fruits and vegetables; it is the most common precursor of vitamin A. The daily human requirement for vitamin A can be met by dietary intake of beta carotene. Body mass index—BMI is an indirect measure of body fat calculated as the ratio of a person’s body weight in kilograms to the square of a person’s height in meters. Caffeine—A plant-derived alkaloid compound (methylxanthine) that has central nervous system stimulating activity. The primary food and beverage sources are coffee, tea, kola nuts, and chocolate. California LEAF Study—A pilot study on the effects of competitive food and beverage restriction implementation in California school districts conducted by the Center for Weight and Health at the University of California at Berkeley. Calorie—A kilocalorie is defined as the amount of heat required to change the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5 degrees Celsius to 15.5 degrees Celsius. In this report, calorie is used synonymously with kilocalorie as a unit of measure for energy obtained from food and beverages. Child Nutrition Programs (CNP)—U.S. Department of Agriculture. Includes the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) School Food Service Program (SFSP), and Special Milk Program (SMP). Cholesterol—A monatomic alcohol found in animal fats and oils, bile, blood, brain tissue, milk, egg yolk, myelin sheaths of nerve fibers, liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands. Competitive Foods—Foods and beverages offered at schools other than meals and snacks served through the federally reimbursed school lunch, breakfast, and after-school snack programs. Competitive food and beverage items may be sold or offered through à la carte lines, snack

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 APPENDIX A bars, student stores, vending machines, or school activities such as special fund-raisers, achievement rewards, classroom parties, school celebrations, classroom snacks, and school meetings, but do not include brown bag lunches. Cyclamate—A salt of cyclamic acid that is used as a nonnutritive sweetener. It is about 30 times as sweet as sugar. Dental caries—A destructive process causing decalcification of the tooth enamel and leading to continued destruction of enamel and dentin, and cavitation of the tooth. Dietary Guidelines for Americans—A federal summary of the latest dietary guidance for the public, based on current scientific evidence and medical knowledge, issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture, and revised every 5 years. Dietary Reference Intakes—A set of four, distinct nutrient-based reference values that replace the former Recommended Dietary Allowances in the United States. They include Estimated Average Requirements, Recommended Dietary Allowances, Adequate Intakes, and Tolerable Upper Level Intakes. Diuresis—The secretion and passage of large amounts of urine. Diuresis occurs as a complication of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and hypercalcemia, among others. Epinephrine—A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla, and released predominant in response to hypoglycemia. It is a potent stimulator of the sympathetic nervous system, being a powerful vasopressor, increasing blood pressure, and stimulating the heart muscle. Federally Reimbursable School Nutrition Programs—The National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs, as well as summer and after-school programs. Foods of minimal nutritional value—Foods prohibited by federal regulation for sale in school food service areas during meal periods. Healthy weight—In children and youth, a level of body fat where comorbidities are not observed. In adults, a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m2. Hydrogenated oils—Oils in which molecular hydrogen has been added to double bonds in the unsaturated fatty acids of the glycerides. Oils are changed to solid fats. Hypercholesterolemia—An excess of cholesterol in the blood. Hypertension—Persistently high arterial blood pressure. Methylxanthine—A group of naturally occurring agents present in caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. They act on the central nervous system, stimulate the myocardium, relax smooth muscle, and promote diuresis.

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 NUTRITION STANDARDS FOR FOODS IN SCHOOLS Monosodium glutamate (MSG)—Chemical used to enhance flavor in foods, can cause headaches, a burning sensation, facial pressure, and chest pain when consumed in large quantities. Nonnutritive sweetener—Nonnutritive sweeteners include aspartame, sucralose, acesulfame-K, neotame, sugar alcohols, and saccharin. These sweeteners provide a sweet taste without providing additional calories (or an insignificant amount of calories, as is the case for aspartame and sugar alcohols). Norepinephrine—Secreted by neurons, acts as a transmitter substance of the peripheral sympathetic nerve endings and probably of certain synapses in the central nervous system. Obesity—In this report, obesity in children and adolescents refers to the age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) that is equal to or greater than the 95th percentile of the BMI charts of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). “At risk for obesity” in children and adolescents is defined as a BMI for age and sex that is between the 85th and 95th percentiles of the CDC BMI curves. In most children, a BMI level at or above the 95th percentile indicates elevated body fat and reflects the presence or risk of related chronic disease. Osteoporosis—Bone disorder characterized by abnormal porosity as a result of diminution in the absolute amount of bone. Phenylalanine—An essential amino acid; it is one of the two linked amino acids in the sugar substitute Aspartame. The genetically determined inability to dispose of excess phenylalanine is known as phenylketonuria or PKU. Phenylketonuria (PKU)—A congenital, autosomal recessive disease marked by failure to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine. It results in severe neurological deficits in infancy if it is unrecognized or left untreated. Phytochemical—Any of the hundreds of natural chemicals present in plants. Many have nutritional value; others are protective (e.g., antioxidants) or cause cell damage (e.g., free radicals). Saccharin—a sweet, white, powdered, synthetic product derived from coal tar, 300 to 500 times sweeter than sugar, used as a nonnutritive sweetener. Sodium benzoate—A white, odorless, granular or crystalline powder, used as an antifungal agent. Sodium bicarbonate—Used as a gastric and systemic antacid. Sodium phosphate—A chemical that is used as a cathartic. Stroke—A condition with sudden onset due to acute vascular lesions of the brain.

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 APPENDIX A Theobromine—A white powder obtained from Theobroma cacao, the plant from which chocolate is obtained. It dilates blood vessels in the heart and peripherally. It is used as a mild stimulant and as a diuretic. Theophylline—An alkaloid caffeine-related substance found in tea or produced synthetically, used as a smooth muscle relaxant, myocardial stimulant, and diuretic.

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