consumption trends, 69

fortified, 41

industry efforts to improve nutritional value of, 114115

nonnutritive sweeteners in, 8, 130132

obesity and, 61

recommendations for school day availability, 1011

regulatory trends, 111

sugar content, 6, 5960, 127128

Tier 1 classification, 123

Tier 2 classification, 124

See also Competitive foods and beverages in schools

Body mass index, 31, 60, 65

Bone health, 3536, 56, 58, 60

Breakfast, 6566, 70

Bulimia nervosa, 3839

C

Caffeine

consumption patterns, 50

potential adverse effects, 9, 5153, 134

recommended nutrition standards, 910, 133134

sources, 50

stimulant effects, 5051

Calcium, 36, 42, 5658, 5960

California, 190193

Calorie intake

current standards for school meals, 25

discretionary calorie allowance, 6365

low nutrient density foods, 6265

nonnutritive sweeteners and, 8, 4850

patterns and trends, 15, 23, 4344, 60

snacks, 7, 67, 129

sugar, 58

from sugar-sweetened beverages, 60

weight gain and, 62

See also Intake, energy and nutrient

Cardiovascular disease, 33

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 12, 19, 87

Channel One, 98

Child Nutrition Act, 74, 104

Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act, 1, 1619

Child Nutrition Labeling Program, 128

Child Nutrition Promotion and School Lunch Protection Act, 108

Cholesterol, 33, 62

trans fat effects, 4, 126

Civil Rights Act, 74

Colorado, 194195

Competitive foods and beverages in schools

after-school sales, 1112, 84, 136137

Alliance for a Healthier Generation guidelines, 114, 115, 257262

availability, 23, 7980, 83

concerns, 16, 106107

current nutritional characteristics, 16, 24

current regulation, 7879, 109, 183255

definition, 1, 16, 78

determinants of access and availability, 16

effects on student food intake, 8586, 107

evolution of regulation, 104105

financial effects of restricting, 9697

foods used as reward or discipline, 11, 85, 135136

goals, 14, 108, 119120

marketing of, 11, 9899, 136

national sales, 9293

national school meals program and, 7677, 79, 104, 107, 124

rationale for nutrition standards, 16, 2324, 2526, 107108, 118

recommendations for after-school availability, 1112, 136137

recommended standards for nonnutritive food components, 810, 130134

recommended standards for nutritive food components, 48, 126130

recommended standards for school day availability, 1011, 134136

research needs, 12, 19

as school revenue source, 75, 77, 9197, 104, 110, 148

sources, 1, 78, 8385

two-tier classification, 34, 119, 120

Connecticut, 196197

D

Dairy products

as calcium source, 5658

displacement by sweetened beverages, 5960

sugar content, 67, 59, 128129

Tier 1 foods, 123



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