. "2 Nutrition-Related Health Concerns, Dietary Intakes, and Eating Behaviors of Children and Adolescents." Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools: Leading the Way Toward Healthier Youth. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2007.
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Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools: Leading the Way Toward Healthier Youth
compared to milk and sweetened-beverage intake. Milk intake was found to decrease relative to increased intake of sweetened beverages by age, over time. The study concluded that calcium intake in girls, aged 5–9 years, reflected the relative intake of milk and sweetened beverages in their diet.
Whiting et al. (2001) conducted a longitudinal study to examine whether the amount and type of beverage consumed by adolescent boys and girls correlated with bone mineral content. Beverage and dietary intake data were collected by 24-hour recall over a six-year period. This study found a negative correlation between consumption of nutrient-poor beverages and total body bone mineral content during the 2 years around the age of peak bone mineral accrual in girls. This correlation did not hold up for boys. The authors concluded that milk consumption decreased with increased consumption of nutrient-poor beverages, but their data did not support a relationship between carbonated beverage consumption and bone health (e.g., bone-retarding chemicals in cola drinks). Reduced bone mineral accrual was significantly correlated with milk displacement by nutrient-poor beverages among girls only.
Blum et al. (2005) reviewed existing longitudinal data and found shifts in beverage consumption correlated with increased BMI, but concluded that additional longitudinal data were needed to show an association between substituting low-nutrient-dense beverages for milk and increased BMI in school-age children.
Adolescents, who have the highest intake of added sugars, obtain about 40 percent of their added sugar intake from soft drinks (Briefel and Johnson, 2004). In general, adolescents drink more soft drinks than milk or fruit juices (Briefel and Johnson, 2004). Depending on the study, Popkin et al. (2006) noted that the average calorie intake for all Americans aged 2 and older has increased by 150–300 calories per day over the past 20–30 years. About 50 percent of this increase is contributed by the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (Popkin et al., 2006). In the 1990s, soft drinks contributed about 4 percent of total energy intake among 6- to 11-year-old children and 8 percent among adolescents.
Increased added sugars intake has been shown to result in increased energy intake for children (Bowman, 1999). For example, adolescents who did not drink soft drinks consumed 1,984 calories per day compared to 2,604 calories per day for adolescents who drank 26 or more fluid ounces of soft drinks per day (Harnack et al., 1999). In addition, consumption of sugar contribution to dental caries (DHHS/USDA, 2004).
Among obese adolescents, soft drinks contributed about 10 percent of total energy intake for males and about 9 percent for females (Troiano et al., 2000). Soft drinks are not the only sugar-sweetened beverages. Others include fruit drinks and sports drinks. As reported by Guthrie and Morton