of competitive foods, they set the food-service context within which many competitive foods and beverages are provided.

ORGANIZATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS

Federal, State, and Local Governance

The federal role in education is limited to certain issues, such as laws involving civil rights and the rights of disabled and at-risk students. The relevant federal legislation includes Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, which includes the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001; Richard Russell National School Lunch Act; Child Nutrition Act of 1966; Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which includes the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; and the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

The American public school system, providing for nearly 50 million children aged 4 through 19, is primarily the responsibility of individual states; within the states, it is the shared responsibility of multiple partners. Each state’s governor can create policy through executive order; the legislature can create policy through the development of law; the chief state school officer makes policy; and the state board of education creates policy through a variety of mechanisms including rule making, regulation, and, in some states, self-executing powers. The chief state school officer and the state board of education, with the assistance of the state department of education, are charged with the task of seeing that all laws and regulations are carried out by the local boards of education.

The chief state school officer may be appointed by the governor or the state board of education, or he or she may be elected by partisan or nonpartisan statewide ballot. Membership on the state board of education may also be either by appointment or by election. In 32 states, the state school board members are appointed by the governor; 10 have elected boards and 8 have other arrangements.

Each state is composed of school districts governed by a local school board. Local school board members are usually elected, although in some states they are appointed. Local school board members make up the largest group of elected officials in the United States, totaling about 95,000 members. These officials bear the responsibility for translating state and federal laws and regulations into workable school district policies, and they have the authority to develop operations of their local schools, as long as those policies are consistent with state and federal laws and regulations.

Professional organizations such as the National Governors Association, the National Conference of State Legislatures, the Council of Chief State



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