portant to note that, although they are common, there have been attempts to regulate how and when they are used. Some state and local boards of education have created policies that restrict location and times of use. For example, placement of a vending machine near dining areas is sometimes forbidden because machine sales can detract from participation in the federally reimbursable school nutrition programs. Many states and districts have decided to keep all vending machines turned off during regular school hours or until the end of the last lunch period, or prohibit sale of carbonated soft drinks until the end of the school day. Soft drinks are not sold at elementary and middle schools in some states. Many state and district policies that address the content of vending machines specify that foods and beverages sold in them must meet acceptable nutrition guidelines or that at least half of all items in the machines meet nutrition guidelines.
Other venues for competitive foods and beverages such as school stores, snack bars, and concession stands often raise money for student activities, school-sponsored clubs, and sports teams. School stores and snack bars are often open during lunch periods as well as before and after school.
Concession stands at sports events and other activities outside school hours are popular with booster organizations that rely on the funds garnered from the sale of foods and beverages to support related activities. Relatively few state or district policies address the sale of competitive foods and beverages on school grounds outside the school day. However, wellness policy requirements recently enacted in federal law prompted a number of districts to address food and beverage availability in various venues.
In addition to school stores, snack bars, and concession stands, other fund-raising activities may also occur during the school day. These fundraisers may include the sale of foods such as candy bars, cakes, and pizza. They may also include more nutritious foods such as low-fat dairy products, juices, fruits, vegetables, nuts, grain products, meats, and legumes.
Fund-raisers conducted during school hours often follow policies established at the school or state levels for other competitive foods and beverages. Many schools allow food and beverage items to be sold during school lunch periods; others do not allow sales while meals are being served. Some districts have policies that place limitations on the frequency of sales, for example, one event per month during school hours. If a student store operates in the food service area, sales of FMNV are prohibited during meal