in the ACS questionnaire instructions on residence or in the residence rules themselves.


About 3 percent of the U.S. population resides in group quarters and not in households. A group quarters (GQ) is defined as a place where people stay that is normally owned or managed by an entity or organization providing housing (and often other services) for the residents. People living in GQs are normally not related to one another. Group quarters include not only institutions, such as prisons and nursing homes, but also noninstitutional group quarters, such as college dormitories, military quarters, and group homes of various kinds (see listing in Table 2-1). Housing unit addresses at which large numbers of (mostly) unrelated people live used to be classified as GQs, but in 2000, these units were classified as households. Similarly, they are included in the ACS household population. Boarding schools and summer camps for children below college age are not included in the ACS GQ universe because of the Census Bureau’s rule that children at these facilities are to be reported at their parental or caregivers’ residences (see Section B.2.a above). Data collection procedures for GQs in the ACS were tested in 1999 and 2001 in the 36 test counties and revised as appropriate. GQs were not included in the C2SS or the 2001–2004 ACS test surveys, nor were they included in the 2005 ACS because of budget constraints. They were included in the 2006 ACS and are included in the 2007 ACS. Some GQ types are out of scope for the ACS for privacy reasons or because monthly data collection would be too difficult and costly: domestic violence shelters, soup kitchens, mobile food vans, targeted non-sheltered outdoor locations, natural disaster shelters, and quarters for crews of maritime vessels.

This section describes the development of the MAF for GQs (4-C.1), sampling of GQs and residents within them (4-C.2), data collection for GQs (4-C.3), and the panel’s concerns and recommendations about GQs (4-C.4, 4-C.5). For details about MAF development, sampling, and data collection procedures for GQs in the ACS, see U.S. Census Bureau (2006:3-7 to 3-8; 4-8 to 4-10; Ch. 8).

Group Quarters and the MAF

For the 2000 census, the Census Bureau originally constructed separate MAFs for GQs and housing units using somewhat different procedures. In the 1990s, the Census Bureau developed an inventory of GQs from various sources. It did not check the GQ inventory against the housing unit MAF until late 1999; these checks identified problems of duplicate GQ and hous-

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