Index to Executive Summary and Chapters 1-7

A

Academic research, uses of ACS in, 78, 121123

ACS. See American Community Survey

Administrative records, 95, 214

Aggregation of data

ACS calendar year, 17

concerns about ACS, 23

confidentiality and, 78, 177

five-year period estimates, 3, 114, 131

preparation for ACS implementation, 135

tabulation specifications for, 89, 182

American Community Survey. See Applications of ACS data;

Characteristics of ACS;

Implementation of ACS;

Interpretation of ACS data

American FactFinder, 232

Applications of ACS data

in academic settings, 78, 121123

federal fund allocations, 77, 8395

federal government, 77, 7980, 132

future opportunities, 7879, 137

legislative restrictions, 79

linkage with other survey instruments, 259260

local government uses, 78, 98117

mass media, 78, 123127

preparation for ACS implementation, 136

recommendations for research, 11, 260

sampling error estimation and, 7274

scope, 3, 7778

seasonal variation research, 257

small-area estimates, 113115, 255257

state fund allocations, 77, 9698

See also Transportation planning

Area studies

ACS release plan, 181

analyzing change over time, 3

for federal fund allocation, 8587

inflation adjustments, 179

interpreting ACS data, 132133

ART II, 183

Assisted housing programs, 8789, 9293

B

Boarding schools, 167, 258

Boundaries, geographic, 63, 137

Building permit data, 200

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 84



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Using the American Community Survey: Benefits and Challenges Index to Executive Summary and Chapters 1-7 A Academic research, uses of ACS in, 78, 121–123 ACS. See American Community Survey Administrative records, 95, 214 Aggregation of data ACS calendar year, 17 concerns about ACS, 23 confidentiality and, 7–8, 177 five-year period estimates, 3, 114, 131 preparation for ACS implementation, 135 tabulation specifications for, 8–9, 182 American Community Survey. See Applications of ACS data; Characteristics of ACS; Implementation of ACS; Interpretation of ACS data American FactFinder, 232 Applications of ACS data in academic settings, 78, 121–123 federal fund allocations, 77, 83–95 federal government, 77, 79–80, 132 future opportunities, 78–79, 137 legislative restrictions, 79 linkage with other survey instruments, 259–260 local government uses, 78, 98–117 mass media, 78, 123–127 preparation for ACS implementation, 136 recommendations for research, 11, 260 sampling error estimation and, 72–74 scope, 3, 77–78 seasonal variation research, 257 small-area estimates, 113–115, 255–257 state fund allocations, 77, 96–98 See also Transportation planning Area studies ACS release plan, 181 analyzing change over time, 3 for federal fund allocation, 85–87 inflation adjustments, 179 interpreting ACS data, 132–133 ART II, 183 Assisted housing programs, 87–89, 92–93 B Boarding schools, 167, 258 Boundaries, geographic, 63, 137 Building permit data, 200 Bureau of Economic Analysis, 84

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Using the American Community Survey: Benefits and Challenges C C2SS. See Census 2000 Supplementary Survey Categorizing variables for confidentiality, 173–174 Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C2SS) implementation, 22 inflation adjustments, 61 long-form-sample estimates and, 19, 51–53, 58–61, 161 quality assurance, 57 response rate, 54–57, 163 Census 2010 data collection, 14, 19–20, 22 estimates of 2000 census and, 128 recommendations for Master Address File, 6, 151–152 Census Bureau education and outreach for ACS implementation, 229–230, 233, 234, 235–238 recommendations for, 4–11, 151–152, 160, 163, 166–167, 172–173, 176–177, 178, 180–181, 182, 183, 196, 201, 214, 228, 236–238, 239, 242, 246 transition to ACS, 79 Census Information Centers, 233 Census Transportation Planning Package, 118 Changes over time interpreting ACS data, 3, 63, 132, 133 large city studies, 102–113 multiyear estimates, 209–210, 214–221 public perception and understanding of ACS data, 124 recommendations for research, 5, 254 research needs, 251 use of ACS data, 51, 124–125 Characteristics of ACS, 25, 184 addition of new questions, 79, 137 advantages, 2, 49, 74–75, 83, 142, 214, 227 concerns, 2, 23–24, 227–228 confidentiality protections, 173–176 content and reference periods, 31–33 controls, housing and population, 154–155 coverage errors, 54–55, 56 data collection, 40–42, 160–161, 184–185 data processing, 43–49 data products, 42–43 data quality, 51–53, 57 design basics, 29–30 housing unit sample design concerns, 152–160 housing unit sampling frame, 153–154 inflation adjustment, 179–181 population coverage, 30–31 quality control, 57 residence rules, 31, 163–164 response patterns, 55, 163 sampling design and size, 33–40, 51, 159–160 sampling errors, 63–74, 75, 122 tabulation specifications, 181–182 vs. long-form sample, 1–3, 13–14, 24, 33, 49, 125, 142, 152–154, 161, 227, 230, 232 See also Five-year period estimates; One-year period estimates; Three-year period estimates Children, residence rules, 164 Coding procedures, 43 Coefficient of variation, 66 collapsing rules, 177 definition, 64 one-year public use microdata samples, 119 Collapsing of data for confidentiality protection, 173–174 negative effects, 177 one-year period population estimates, 203–207 ongoing research needs for ACS implementation, 141–142 rationale, 177 recommendations for research, 8, 178 rules, 177 College students, 171, 258 Community Address Updating System, 6, 148, 150–151 Community Development Block Grants, 82, 86 Commuter workers, 164 Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy, 95 Computer-assisted personal interviewing ACS data collection process, 161, 184–185 data collection mode effects, 6, 161, 162, 163, 192–193, 253

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Using the American Community Survey: Benefits and Challenges housing unit follow-up sampling, 147–148, 155–156, 158–159 recommendations for research, 6, 159, 163 residence rules and, 164 sampling error, 64–65 weighting of one-year period estimates, 192–193 Computer-assisted telephone interviewing ACS data collection process, 160–161, 184–185 data collection mode effects, 6, 161, 162, 163, 192–193, 253 housing unit follow-up strategy, 147–148 recommendations for research, 6, 163 residence rules and, 164 Confidence intervals, 64, 66, 74, 76 Confidentiality in ACS quality profile outline, 244 ACS strategies, 42–43, 173–174 Census Bureau interviewers, 170 concerns about ACS, 174–176 five-year period data, 120 month of data collection, 7, 174–175, 176–177 recommendations for research, 7–8, 176–177 research needs, 252–253 Continuous sampling approach, 20–22, 29 Controls ACS, 2, 17, 47–48, 127 ACS quality profile, 244 for counties for specific population groups, 23 for coverage errors, 56 housing data, 9, 127–128, 154–155, 196–201 margins of error, 9 for multiyear estimates, 213 population data, 127, 128, 154–155, 250, 254 recommendations for research, 5, 9, 208, 254 urban area housing unit responses, 150 Costs ACS, 18 long-form sampling, 17–18, 19–20 County-level ACS controls for specific population groups, 23 family median income estimates, 87–94 housing unit estimates, 198 housing unit sampling in rural areas, 151 per capita income estimates, 84 population estimates, 9, 202–203, 208 weighting multiyear estimands, 213–214, 222 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 52, 83, 125, 126–127, 171, 255–256, 259 D Data collection methodology ACS, 2, 6, 40–42, 184–185 comparisons between studies, 125–127, 244, 245, 251–252 costs, 18 evolution of Census Bureau practice, 15–16 group quarters, 167, 170 handheld devices, 19–20 housing units, 160–167 linkages among national survey activities, 259–260 methods panels review, 11, 247–254 modes and mode effects, 6, 160–163, 192–193, 243–244, 253 monitoring, 238 month of collection information, 7, 174–175, 176–177 paired strategy, 15, 16–20 recommendation for research, 6–7, 163 research needs, 141, 253 transition to ACS, 14–15, 23–24, 135 Data swapping, 42, 173 Decennial census data ACS data and, 78, 128–129 residence rules, 31, 163, 201 summary files, 122 uses, 13, 15 See also Long-form sample of decennial census Delivery Sequence File, 6, 148, 149, 150–151 Department of Housing and Urban Development, 87–89, 94, 95 Disabilities, people with, 60 Dollar amounts latest-year estimates, 179–180 See also Inflation adjustments Domestic violence shelters, 167

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Using the American Community Survey: Benefits and Challenges E Editing procedures, ACS, 43 Education for ACS implementation ACS interviewers, 2, 161 ACS staffing for, 10 media role, 235 organizational network for, 233–234, 237 recommendations for, 10, 235–238 Educational attainment, field of bachelor’s degree, 33, 258 Eight-year period estimates, 209 Employment status comparison of C2SS and 2000 long-form-sample results, 60 nonsampling errors in, 131 e-StARS. See Statistical Administrative Records System Extreme weights, 195 F Federal Agency Information Program, 233 Federal government allocation of funds based on census data, 80–95 classification of census data uses, 79 uses of ACS, 77, 79–80, 132 uses of long-form sample, 79 Federal State Cooperative Program for Population Estimates, 233 Feedback from ACS users, 5, 10, 137, 228, 229, 230, 233–234, 235–238 Field interviews ACS advantages, 2 ACS follow-up, 36 ACS margin of error and, 2 ACS procedure, 40 Master Address File verification, 6 See also Computer-assisted personal interviewing Five-year period estimates challenges in use of ACS data, 62–63 confidentiality issues, 120, 175, 176 county-level median family incomes, 88–89 data processing procedures, 48–49 data release schedule, 14, 49–50 housing unit sample size, 155 inflation adjustments, 93, 179 large city applications, 100 large city changes over time, 104–114 margin of error, 130 mid-year estimands, 211 sampling design, 36–40 sampling error, 63–64, 74 small area studies, 3, 113–115, 131–132 standard error, 67 for state fund allocations, 96–98 transportation planning applications, 120, 121 See also Multiyear estimates; Period estimates Follow-up ACS data collection process, 2, 36, 40, 160–161 costs, 18 housing unit sampling, 147–148, 155–156, 158–159 long-form sample of 2000 census, 19 quality control, 57 Frequency of data release, 2, 14, 42, 49–50 Funding federal fund allocation based on census data, 80–95 guidelines for ACS use for fund allocation, 132 hold-harmless provisions, 85 to increase precision in small area studies, 4–5 for methods panels, 11, 248 recommendations for, 4, 11, 228, 248 share estimating, 132 state fund allocation based on census data, 94–98 uses of census data, 16 See also Costs G Grant allocations, 82 Group quarters ACS data collection methodology, 167, 170 ACS residence rules, 31 data collection concerns, 170–172 definition, 167 institutional, 160, 167, 171, 172, 181 Master Address File, 167–168 recommendations for research, 7, 172–173

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Using the American Community Survey: Benefits and Challenges sampling strategy, 168–169 tabulation specifications, 8, 181, 182 types of, 167 weighting of one-year period estimates, 185 H Handheld devices, 19–20 Head Start Program, 82 Health insurance coverage, 33, 256 Hold-harmless provision, 85 Home Investment Partnership Program, 82, 86 Homeless population, 30–31 Household member characteristics ACS sampling frame, 153–154 confidentiality protections, 173 controls for multiyear estimates, 213 mode effects on responding and, 162–163 weighting of one-year period estimates, 194–195, 201–207 See also Residence rules Housing costs guidelines for ACS data interpretation, 134 inflation adjustments, 8, 93–94, 134, 179, 180 period estimates, 4 Housing units ACS content and reference periods, 31–33 affordability studies, 95 controls, 9, 127–128, 154–155, 194–195, 196–201 evaluation of ACS data products, 23–24 initial sample development, 142–147, 156–159 Master Address File contents, 148 mean absolute percentage error of county estimates, 198–199 mode of data collection, 160–163 nonresponse follow-up sampling, 147–148, 155–156 number of rooms, 59–60 ongoing research needs for ACS implementation, 141 part-time/temporary residences, 258 postcensal estimates, 9, 200, 201 recommendations for data collection and analysis, 6–7, 9, 151–152, 159–160 rural area Master Address File, 150–151 sample design concerns, 152–159 sample size, 155–156 sampling frame, 153–154 sampling operations, 23–24, 142–160 supply characteristics, 153, 154 tenure status, 59 urban area Master Address File, 149–150 use of Master Address File for ACS sampling, 148–152 vacancy rates, 59 weighting of one-year period estimates. See Weighting of one-year period estimates weighting procedures, 47 See also Group quarters Housing values guidelines for ACS data interpretation, 134 inflation adjustments, 8, 93–94, 134 period estimates, 4 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 18–19, 48, 134, 209, 257 I Immigrant populations. See Migration studies Implementation of ACS, 24–25 advisory group, 10, 237 agency preparations, 134–135 challenges and opportunities, 4, 61, 227–228, 229, 254–255 costs, 18 data collection mode effects, 6, 161–163, 192–193, 243–244, 253 data quality review, 9, 183 funding, 4, 228 housing unit sampling, 23–24, 142–160 network of organizations for, 233–234 ongoing monitoring and research, 141–142, 238 organizational support, 10, 233–234, 237 origins and early development, 20–22 ramp-up period, 134–137 role of media, 235

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Using the American Community Survey: Benefits and Challenges significance of, 14, 227 user education and feedback, 5, 10, 11, 29, 79, 228, 229–238 See also Applications of ACS data; Interpretation of ACS data Imputation, 56–57, 126, 244, 254 Income studies comparison of C2SS and 2000 long-form-sample results, 60–61 comparisons between studies, 126–127 county-level median estimates, 87–94 for federal fund allocation, 84 group quarters data, 172 guidelines for ACS data interpretation, 134 inflation adjustments, 8, 90–93, 134, 179, 180 nonsampling errors in, 131 per capita estimates, 84 period estimates, 4, 89–90 price change studies and, 92, 93 small area studies, 256 sources for median family estimates, 94 See also Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates Inflation adjustments ACS data interpretation, 134 ACS procedures, 4, 43–47, 48–49, 179 ACS quality profile, 244 in Census 2000 Supplementary Survey (C2SS), 61 geographic area-specific, 179 housing amounts, 8, 93–94, 134 income studies, 8, 90–93, 134, 179, 180 latest-year estimates and, 179–180 public use microdata samples, 123 recommendations for, 8, 180–181 research needs, 253 Institutional group quarters, 160, 167, 171, 172, 181 Interpretation of ACS data cautions, 3–4 changes over time, 3, 51, 63, 215 comparisons with data from other sources, 4, 125–127, 134 decennial census data and, 78 educational resources for, 231 guidelines, 130–134 inflation adjustments, 8 margin of error considerations, 130 nonsampling error considerations, 130–131 period estimates, 61–63 population control errors, 9 user preparation for, 232 variation in weighting adjustments, 187 Interviewers confidentiality rules, 170 data collection mode effects, 6, 161–162, 192–193, 253 education and training, 2, 161 See also Computer-assisted personal interviewing; Computer-assisted telephone interviewing Inverse selection probability weighting, 185, 186, 188 L Large cities analyzing changes over time, 102–113 availability of ACS data, 100–102 definition, 99 uses of ACS data, 99–113 Local Area Unemployment Statistics, 256 Local government allocation of funds, 98–117 state fund allocation to, 95 uses of ACS, 78 See also County-level ACS; Large cities; Small areas and jurisdictions Local Update of Census Addresses, 149, 150 Long-form sample of decennial census academic applications, 121 advantages of paired strategy, 16–18 allocation of federal funds based on, 80–83 applications, 13, 16 costs, 17–18, 19–20 data collection procedures, 40–42 disadvantages of paired strategy, 17, 18–20 evolution of 15–20 federal agency uses, 79–80 follow-up, 19 group quarters data, 170–171 historical and technical evolution, 15–16 housing unit sampling, 152–153 population controls, 207

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Using the American Community Survey: Benefits and Challenges residence rules, 31, 163 response rates, 20, 22 sampling design, 33 sampling error, 63–64, 74 seasonal populations, 117 state government uses, 94–95 timeliness of data release, 18–19 transition to ACS, 1, 4, 14, 75, 232 transportation planning applications, 118 vs. ACS, 1–3, 13–14, 24, 33, 49, 125, 142, 152–154, 161, 227, 230, 232 vs. Census 2000 Supplementary Survey, 58–61 M Mail service Delivery Sequence File, 6, 148, 149, 150–151 undeliverable questionnaires, 150 Mandated uses, 79 Margins of error ACS sampling, 2, 10–11, 66, 76 computation, 240, 241 interpretation of ACS results, 130 large city multiyear studies, 102–113 ninety percent, 64, 66, 74 one-year public use microdata samples, 119 public understanding, 124 public use microdata samples, 123 published, 239–240 recommendations for research, 9 Marital history, 33 Maritime workers, 167 Master Address File contents, 148 definition, 148 for group quarters, 167–168 housing unit addresses, 200, 201 housing unit sampling for ACS, 142–143, 148 linkage with other data sources, 214, 259, 260 maintenance costs, 17–18 postcensal housing unit estimates and, 9, 201 recommendations for research, 5, 6, 9, 151–152, 254 research needs, 141, 249–250 rural area data, 150–151 selection probabilities, 188 updating, 6, 148–151 urban area data, 149–150 weighting of one-year period estimates, 187–188, 189–190, 196–197, 199–201 Media in ACS implementation, 136, 235 coverage of ACS, 235 uses of ACS, 78, 123–127 Medicaid, 84 Methods panels, 11, 247–254 Migration studies, 18, 121, 127, 201–202, 258–259 Military facilities, 170 Mode bias, 192–193, 243–244, 253 Month of data collection, 7, 174–175, 176–177 Monthly sample. See Tabulation month Multiple residences, 258 Multiyear estimates alternative estimands, 209, 210–212 changes over time, 209–210, 214–221 concerns about ACS, 23 confidentiality effects on quality of data, 175–176 large city studies, 102–113 population change effects, 210, 221–223 recommendations for research, 10, 214, 223 single-year estimands from, 210–211 weighting, 10, 23, 209, 212–214 See also Five-year period estimates; Three-year period estimates N Natural disaster shelters, 167 Neighborhood sampling errors, 2 New Freedom Program, 82 No Child Left Behind Act, 83, 87 Noninterview adjustments, 191–193 Nonsampling errors, 3, 17, 51, 75, 130, 131, 228, 238–239, 243–244 Nursing homes, 167, 171, 172. See also Institutional group quarters

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Using the American Community Survey: Benefits and Challenges O Office of Management and Budget, U.S., 79 One-year period estimates challenges in use of ACS data, 61–62, 63 county-level median family incomes, 88–89 data processing procedures, 43–48 for federal fund allocations, 84–85, 86 housing data, 155 large city applications, 100–104 from multiyear data, 210–211 population size cutoff, 8–9, 86, 100–102, 181, 182, 184, 253 public use microdata samples, 122–123 quality indicators, 10 sampling design, 36–40 sampling error, 74, 132–133 small area studies, 133 standard error, 67 for state fund allocations, 96–98 transportation planning applications, 119 weighting. See Weighting of one-year period estimates See also Period estimates Origins of ACS, 20–22, 117–118 Oversampling error risk, 64, 67 rationale, 36, 158 small jurisdiction applications, 36, 64, 113–114, 158 P Paired strategy, 15, 16–20 Period estimates, 1 collapsing of cells for, 8 comparisons between studies, 126 county-level median family income estimates, 89–90 for federal fund allocation, 87 guidelines for ACS data interpretation, 132, 133–134 inflation adjustments, 4 labeling, 4, 133–134 large city applications, 99–102 recommendations for research, 9–10, 201 seasonal populations and, 115–117 use of ACS data, 3–4, 61–63, 75 See also Five-year period estimates; Multiyear estimates; One-year period estimates; Three-year period estimates Population studies ACS universe, 30–31 areas that have marked change, 10 comparisons between studies, 126 concerns about ACS, 23 controls, 47–48, 127, 128, 154–155, 201–207, 250, 254 effects of population change in multiyear estimates, 210, 221–223 for federal fund allocation, 85–87 interpreting ACS data, 3, 132–133 mean absolute percentage error of one-year period estimates, 202–205 multiyear estimands, 213 one-year period population size cutoff, 181–182, 184 one-year period population size weighting, 201–207 opportunities for improvement, 258–259 postcensal controls, 9 proportional estimates, 221–222 rare populations, 258 recommendations for research, 9, 203, 254 research needs, 250, 258–259 seasonal populations, 115–117, 155, 221, 257 small populations in small jurisdictions, 114–115 tabulation specifications, 181 three-year period population size cutoff, 184 transportation planning applications, 118 See also Household member characteristics Poverty estimates ACS interpretation, 87 comparisons between different data sources, 125 inflation adjustments, 93 long-form sample, 95 period estimates, 87 See also Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates Price change studies, 92, 93, 179

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Using the American Community Survey: Benefits and Challenges Prisons, 167, 168, 170, 171, 172. See also Institutional group quarters Private sector uses of census data, 16 Programmatic uses, 79 Proportional estimates, 221–222 Proxy responses, 57 Public perception and understanding conflicts between data sources, 125 media coverage of ACS, 235 media uses of ACS data, 124 preparation for ACS implementation, 136 Public use microdata areas computing sampling errors, 241 confidentiality effects on quality of data, 174–175 confidentiality strategies, 173 data quality monitoring, 239 definition, 42–43 family income studies, 94 in small area studies, 133 statistical subarea specification, 182 transportation planning applications, 119, 120 Public use microdata samples academic research applications, 121 confidentiality protection in, 42–43 inflation adjustments, 123 large city, 100 margin of error, 123 research applications, 122–123 for state fund allocation, 98 transportation planning applications, 118, 119, 121 Q Quality assurance, 57, 183 Quality of data ACS, 2, 51, 75 automated tools for reviewing, 5, 9, 183, 252, 254 collapsing rules and, 177 Community Address Updating System, 151 comparison of C2SS and 2000 long-form-sample results, 51–53, 58–61 comparisons between studies, 244, 245, 251–252 concerns, 23–24, 149–151 confidentiality protections and, 174–176 for federal fund allocations, 84–85 group quarters data, 170–172 Master Address File, 6, 149–151, 200, 201, 249–250 methods panels review, 11, 247–254 ongoing monitoring, 228, 238 quality profile, 11, 242–246 recommendations for research, 9, 10–11, 183, 239, 246 R Race/ethnicity census race categories, 202 comparison of C2SS and 2000 long-form-sample results, 58–59 confidentiality protections, 173–174 one-year period population estimates, 202, 203, 204–205, 207 responding behavior, 162, 163 Relative standard error. See Coefficient of variation Replacement procedure, 185 Required uses, 79 Research academic uses of ACS, 121–123 ACS quality profile, 242–246 comparisons between studies, 127, 251–252 data collection methodology, 247–248 income studies, ACS reference period effects on, 90 key areas, 25 Master Address File, 5, 6, 9, 151–152 ongoing needs, 141–142, 228 priorities, 248–254 public use microdata samples, 122–123 recommendations for, 5–8, 9–11, 151–152, 163, 165–167, 172–173, 176–177, 178, 183, 208, 214, 223, 228, 239, 248, 254, 260 residence rules, 5, 7, 165–167 uses of ACS, 78 uses of Summary Files, 121, 122 Residence rules ACS, 31, 163–164 comparisons between studies, 126 long-form sample, 31, 163 recommendations for research, 5, 7, 165–167, 254

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Using the American Community Survey: Benefits and Challenges research needs, 244, 251 seasonal populations and, 115 two-month rule, 163–164, 166, 251 types of residences, 31 Respondent behavior ACS, 55 Census 2000 Supplementary Survey, 54–57 data collection mode effects, 6, 161–162, 192–193, 243–244, 253 long form vs. short form, 20, 22 recommendations for research, 6, 7, 163, 166–167 research needs, 247–248 respondent characteristics and, 162–163 Results of ACS quality review, 183 release plan, 181 Rounding of weights, 195 Rural housing unit sampling, 150–151 S Samples/sampling ACS design, 33–40, 51 ACS error estimation, 10–11, 63–74, 75 ACS quality profile, 242–246 analyzing trends over time, 3 comparisons between studies, 126 county-level median family income estimates, 88–89 coverage errors, 54–55, 56, 150 data collapsing to prevent error, 8, 177–178 documentation of error, 74, 241–242 evolution of Census Bureau practice, 15–16 group quarters, 7, 168–169 long-form housing unit sampling frame, 152–153 monthly sample defined, 184–185 nonresponse housing unit follow-up, 147–148, 155–156, 158–159 one-year public use microdata samples, 119 published margins of error, 239–240, 242 reallocation, 4–5 recommendations for research, 5, 151–152, 159–160, 254 research needs, 141, 249 size, 2, 5, 33–36, 159–160, 249, 254 small areas, 4–5, 36, 64–65, 75–76, 113, 159–160 sources of error, 51 standard error computation, 240–242 School district sampling, 158 School lunch data, 95 Season of data collection, 7, 257 Seasonal populations, 115–117, 155, 175, 221 Sex distribution, mean absolute percentage error of one-year period estimates, 204–205 Share estimating, 3, 132 Small Area Health Insurance Estimates, 256 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates, 83, 84, 87, 98, 256 Small areas and jurisdictions ACS applications, 113–115, 255–257 ACS user education, 229 aggregation of data, 8–9, 114, 182 evolution of Census Bureau data collection, 15–16, 20–22 five-year period estimates, 3, 113–115, 131–132 group quarters data, 171–172 housing unit sampling, 36, 144–146 initial housing unit sample, 156–158 interpretation of ACS data, 3, 133 population change effects on multiyear estimates, 221–223 population patterns, 113 recommendations for data collection and analysis, 4–5, 159–160 sampling errors, 36, 64–65, 75–76, 113 small population estimates, 114–115 weighting multiyear estimands, 213–214 Small populations, 258 Soup kitchens, 167 Special Education Grants, 82, 85–86 Standard error ACS, 63–66, 67, 72–74 ACS quality profile, 243 computing sampling errors, 240–242 estimates of change between multiyear periods, 218–220 range of acceptability, 67–72 research needs, 254 State Data Centers, 233, 234

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Using the American Community Survey: Benefits and Challenges State government allocation of funds based on census data, 94–98 uses of ACS, 77 Statistical Administrative Records System (e-StARS), 6, 152, 259 Summary Files, 121, 122 Summer camps, 167 T Tabulation month definition, 184–185 variation in monthly response factor, 190–191 Tabulation specifications, 8–9, 181–182 Tax return data, 202 Taxes, property, inflation adjustments, 93–94 Tenure status, comparison of C2SS and 2000 long-form-sample results, 59 Three-year period estimates challenges in use of ACS data, 62, 63 county-level median family incomes, 88–89 data processing procedures, 48–49 data release schedule, 14, 49–50 for federal fund allocations, 86 housing amounts, 93 large city applications, 100–102 population size cutoff, 86, 100–102, 184, 253 sampling error, 74 small area studies, 133 standard error, 67 for state fund allocations, 96–98 statistical subarea specification, 8–9, 182 See also Multiyear estimates; Period estimates Timeliness of data release, 2, 19, 49, 50–51 Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grants, 82 Top-coding, 174 Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing database, 148 Traffic analysis zones, 118, 120 Training data sets, 135 Transportation planning confidentiality protections and release of data for, 176 evolution of ACS and, 117–118 uses of ACS, 78, 118–121 Two-year period estimates, 209 U Undeliverable mail questionnaires, 6, 150, 152 Undersampling, 64, 146 Universe, ACS, 30–31, 181, 252 Urban area Master Address File, 149–150 V Vacant housing units, comparison of C2SS and 2000 long-form-sample results, 59 Variation in monthly response factor, 188–191 Veterans with service-related disability, 33 W Web site, ACS, 231 Weekend homes, 258 Weighting ACS procedures, 47–48, 49 ACS quality profile, 244 base weights, 47 comparisons between studies, 126 confidentiality protections, 175–176 group quarters population estimates, 185 methods, 185 multiyear estimates, 10, 23, 209, 212–214 one-year period estimates. See Weighting of one-year period estimates recommendations for research, 10, 214 research needs, 250, 253 urban area housing unit responses, 150 variation in ACS samples, 2 Weighting of one-year period estimates adjustments for extreme weights, 195 base weights, 186–188, 196 goals, 196

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Using the American Community Survey: Benefits and Challenges housing unit control factors, 194–195, 196–201 inverse selection probability weighting, 185, 186, 188 nine-step process, 185–186 noninterview factors, 191–193 population controls, 194, 201–207 recommendations for review, 9, 196 rounding procedures, 195 supplemental sample, 189–190 variation in monthly response factor, 188–191 Workforce Investment Act, 82