related issues, such as intergenerational and coercive sex; increasing family and community involvement in HIV prevention; and promoting counseling and testing, especially for family members of people living with HIV/AIDS (OGAC, 2006c). Funding under abstinence/be faithful also supports technical assistance and capacity building activities, such as the formulation of culturally appropriate school curriculum focused on developing students’ life skills, training of adults (teachers and community counselors) to promote abstinence/be faithful messages in their communities, and strengthening of the capacity of local organizations to enable them to receive U.S. government funding under the abstinence/be faithful subcategory (OGAC, 2006c). Examples of abstinence/be faithful activities in selected focus countries are presented in Box 4-1.

BOX 4-1

Selected Examples of PEPFAR-Supported Abstinence/Be Faithful Activities

In Ethiopia, PEPFAR is funding programs that address negative social norms that lead to increased risk of HIV infection for young girls. Behavior change activities are directed at older men who seek sexual relationships with younger girls and the communities that explicitly or implicitly condone such relationships.

In South Africa, a number of PEPFAR partners are bringing tailored AB messages into communities with door-to-door counseling on risk assessment and behavior change, as well as the use of traditional healers to deliver prevention messages that reinforce traditional values.

In Uganda, PEPFAR has supported the development and tailoring of school-based prevention curriculum. Support for the Presidential Initiative on AIDS Strategy for Communication to Youth, a school-based HIV/AIDS communication initiative for youths, has provided training for a large number of primary school teachers on abstinence and life skills messages, as well as related teaching and reading materials.

In Namibia, a PEPFAR partner is focusing on prevention by strengthening AB messages at counseling and testing sites in the community setting, providing counseling and testing for partners and family members of people who are HIV-positive, offering risk reduction counseling, and stressing the importance of being faithful to a partner of known HIV status.

SOURCE: OGAC, 2006c.

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