range of methods, including information-gathering and deliberative meetings; review of the scientific and other literature; review of PEPFAR and other documentation; analysis of PEPFAR budget and performance data; discussions with a wide range of PEPFAR staff, participants, and stakeholders; and visits to the PEPFAR focus countries. Some Committee members and staff participated in both PEPFAR annual meetings—in Ethiopia in May of 2005 and in South Africa in June of 2006—including the U.S. government–only sessions, as well as the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator’s (OGAC) monthly outreach meetings, relevant Congressional hearings, meetings of the Center for Strategic and International Studies Task Force on HIV/AIDS, the Partnership for Supply Chain Management launch meeting on May 24, 2006, in Washington, DC—“Delivering HIV/AIDS Commodities to Customers Insights and Partnerships for Seamless Supply Chains”—and the PEPFAR Gender and HIV/AIDS Consultation on June 1, 2006, also in Washington, DC.


On October 31, 2005, the Committee published its plan for carrying out this short-term evaluation of PEPFAR. The plan outlined the Committee’s evaluation questions and approach to the study (IOM, 2005). This report is included as Appendix C and is also available free of charge at the following web address: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11472.html.

Evaluating Within the Framework of Harmonization

Figure 1-1 in Chapter 1 summarizes the Committee’s evaluation plan, and shows the focus countries and “harmonization” at the center of the plan. In April 2004, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the United Kingdom, and the United States co-hosted a high-level meeting at which donors reaffirmed their commitment to harmonization—that is, to strengthening national AIDS responses to be led by the affected countries themselves. They endorsed the “Three Ones” as guiding principles to improve the country-level response (UN, 2003; UNAIDS, 2004; OGAC, 2005):

  • One agreed upon HIV/AIDS Action Framework that provides the basis for coordinating the work of all partners.

  • One National AIDS Coordinating Authority, with a broad-based multisectoral mandate.

  • One agreed upon country-level Monitoring and Evaluation System (UNAIDS, 2004).

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