of Overseers (2002–2008). He was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 2004. Dr. Sepúlveda earned his M.D. at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in 1978, followed by an M.P.H. in 1980, an M.S. in Tropical Medicine in 1981, and a Ph.D. in Population Science in 1985, all from the Harvard School of Public Health.

Helen Smits, M.D., M.A.C.P. (Vice Chair), has just completed a Fulbright Lectureship in the new Masters in Public Health offered at the Faculty of Medicine of Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique. She also served as a Clinton Foundation volunteer working with the Mozambican Ministry of Health task force that developed a “business plan” to scale up AIDS treatment and prevention. During 2003 and the first half of 2004 she served on a volunteer basis as the Foundation’s representative to the group of bilateral donors engaged in the Sector-Wide Approach with the Mozambican Ministry of Health. She is currently working with the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (Boston) and The Health Foundation (London) on quality improvement projects in Southern Africa. She has expertise in general health policy, with particular emphasis on quality monitoring. Dr. Smits served from 1993 to 1996 as the Deputy Administrator of the Health Care Financing Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. She has served on several committees with the IOM, and was recently review coordinator for the IOM’s publication Scaling Up Treatment for the Global AIDS Pandemic. She served from 1996 to 2000 as a member of the Board of Governors of the Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health. She also served as co-chair of the Strategic Framework Board of the National Quality Forum, and is a former member and former Chair of the Board of Commissioners of the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (JCAHO). Her most recent academic appointment was as Visiting Professor at the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University. She has also been Professor of Community Medicine at the University of Connecticut and Associate Professor of Medicine and Public Health at Yale.

Charles Carpenter, M.D. (Treatment Subcommittee Chair), is Professor of Medicine and Director of the Brown University AIDS Center at Brown University. In 1962, Carpenter started the Johns Hopkins Cholera Research program in Calcutta, India, where he demonstrated the value of antibiotics and defined the fluid requirements essential for the treatment of cholera. At Johns Hopkins he built an infectious disease program focused on enteric pathogens; during his tenure as Chair of the Department of Medicine at Case Western Reserve Medical School he developed the first Division of Geographic Medicine within a Department of Medicine in the United States. Since moving to Brown University in 1986, he has focused on the

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