research needs, 155, 265

resistance monitoring, 150151, 154

stigma reduction, 150

supply chain management, 162164

training for health care workers, 145146, 258

utilization, 141, 145

Attributions for success, 144145

B

Bacterial vaginosis, 53

Behavioral surveillance, 7, 113, 114, 132, 133, 134, 135

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 41

Blood safety, 115, 128129, 137

Breastfeeding, 125126

C

Capacity building initiatives, 252259

Care services

budget allocations, 67, 99, 106107

challenges, 200201

classification, 172173

community-based, family-centered, 178180, 201

comprehensive, 172, 174175, 178, 179, 191

contracting for, 178

definition and scope, 169, 171172

delivery mechanisms, 169

effectiveness, 173

harmonization of, 201

health care worker training, 169, 176, 188190

home-based, 70, 177, 182, 191192, 193194

integration with prevention and treatment efforts, 13, 99100, 134136, 142, 155, 170, 200, 202

major HIV/AIDS program elements, 48

needs of women and girls, 196197

nondiscrimination in, 14, 82, 9192

opportunities for improvement, 190

pain management, 194195

palliative care, 171172, 194195, 200201

PEPFAR delivery, 169, 173176, 181188, 201202, 245246

PEPFAR five-year performance targets, 2526, 58, 169, 173

PEPFAR transition to sustainability, 190

planning, 180181

preventive interventions in, 116, 169, 182184

program performance evaluation, 265

psychosocial, 177, 192193

quality assessment, 202

recommendations for, 13, 170, 200

stigmatization effects, 5657

volunteer workers, 193194

See also Counseling and testing

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 8485, 104, 263

Child caregivers, 55

Children

AIDS mortality, 145

antiretroviral therapy utilization, 141, 145

immunization, 230

infection patterns and trends, 125

pain management, 195

sources of infection, 125

testing for infants, 187188, 230

treatment, 152153, 155156

See also Mother-to-child transmission of HIV;

Orphans and other vulnerable children

Communication mechanisms and practices, 8687, 9798

Community-based approach

capacity building, 253254

care services, 201

characteristics, 178

current service delivery, 4647

goals, 47

network model, 177, 178179

prevention of mother-to-child transmission, 126

recommendations for, 13, 170, 200

services for orphans and other vulnerable children, 215, 219222

Community health worker model of care, 189

Comorbid infections

in children, 156

implications for treatment, 157

opportunistic infections, 184

prevalence, 157

preventive interventions, 182184

See also Malaria;

Tuberculosis



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