4
Epidemiologic Studies—New Citations for Update 2006 and Background on Repeatedly Studied Populations

The continuing effort to evaluate and integrate all results from human studies pertinent to possible health effects of exposure to any of the chemicals of interest (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D]; 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4,5-T] and its contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD]; 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid [picloram]; and cacodylic acid [dimethylarsinic acid or DMA]) has involved the consideration of thousands of citations over the successive updates. Results on a single population may be reported concerning a multiplicity of health outcomes and in more than one publication, particularly when a study is of the cohort design with repeated follow-ups.

The major purpose of the chapters on “epidemiology” or “epidemiologic studies” in Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam (VAO; IOM, 1994) and its updates has always been to reduce repetition of design information in the health outcomes chapters from endpoint to endpoint and from update to update. Deviating somewhat from the format of previous VAO reports, this chapter first provides tables listing the epidemiologic citations new to this update, which represent a compendium of the sources of new information on health outcomes in humans considered by this committee. The citations correspond to publications that appeared from June 1, 2004 (the closing date for inclusion in the previous update), through September 30, 2006.

Earlier reports in the VAO series used an organizational framework for this chapter, for discussions of health outcomes, and for results tables, which categorized each publication containing primary epidemiologic findings as an occupational study, an environmental study, or a study of Vietnam veterans. These categories were not intended to imply that any of these populations is intrinsically more valuable for the committee’s purpose. Various study designs



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4 Epidemiologic Studies—New Citations for Update 2006 and Background on Repeatedly Studied Populations The continuing effort to evaluate and integrate all results from human studies pertinent to possible health effects of exposure to any of the chemicals of interest (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D]; 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4,5- T] and its contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD]; 4-amino- 3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid [picloram]; and cacodylic acid [dimethylarsinic acid or DMA]) has involved the consideration of thousands of citations over the successive updates. Results on a single population may be reported concerning a multiplicity of health outcomes and in more than one publication, particularly when a study is of the cohort design with repeated follow-ups. The major purpose of the chapters on “epidemiology” or “epidemiologic studies” in Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam (VAO; IOM, 1994) and its updates has always been to reduce repetition of design information in the health outcomes chapters from endpoint to endpoint and from update to update. Deviating somewhat from the format of previous VAO reports, this chapter first provides tables listing the epidemiologic citations new to this update, which represent a compendium of the sources of new informa- tion on health outcomes in humans considered by this committee. The citations correspond to publications that appeared from June 1, 2004 (the closing date for inclusion in the previous update), through September 30, 2006. Earlier reports in the VAO series used an organizational framework for this chapter, for discussions of health outcomes, and for results tables, which categorized each publication containing primary epidemiologic findings as an occupational study, an environmental study, or a study of Vietnam veterans. These categories were not intended to imply that any of these populations is intrinsically more valuable for the committee’s purpose. Various study designs 139

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140 VETERANS AND AGENT ORANGE: UPDATE 2006 (most importantly cohort, case–control, and cross-sectional) have strengths and weaknesses (see Chapter 2) that influence their potential to contribute evidence of an association with the health outcomes considered in Chapters 6–9 of this report. Update 2006 has retained the categorization scheme; cycling through these categories, the second part of this chapter discusses the design details of new reports on populations already under study and of studies on new populations reporting multiple endpoints. The occupational section covers studies of produc- tion workers, agriculture and forestry workers (including herbicide and pesticide applicators), and paper and pulp workers. The environmental section covers stud- ies of populations unintentionally exposed to unusually high concentrations of herbicides or dioxins as a result of where they lived, such as Seveso, Italy; Times Beach, Missouri; and the southern portion of Vietnam. The section on Vietnam veterans covers studies of US veterans conducted by the Air Force, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the American Legion, and individual states; it also discusses studies of veterans from other nations (e.g., Australia and Korea) that fought in Vietnam. In addition to reviewing studies involving exposures to the chemicals of interest (2,4-D; 2,4,5-T and its contaminant TCDD; cacodylic acid; and piclo- ram), this and earlier VAO committees have examined any available studies that address compounds chemically related to the herbicides used in Vietnam, such as 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid (MCPP), hexachlorophene, and chlorophenols, particularly 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP). Some study investigators do not indicate in their published reports the specific herbicides to which study participants were exposed or the magnitude of exposure; those complicating factors were considered when the committee weighed the relevance of a study, as detailed in Chapter 2 of this report. Available details of exposure assessment and use of the resulting data in analyses are discussed in Chapter 5, which follows the same sequence to categorize study populations. NEW CITATIONS REVIEWED IN UPDATE 2006 To elucidate further the new epidemiologic data reviewed by the committee for Update 2006, three tables have been added to this chapter that list new cita- tions. Tables 4-1 and 4-2 both list citations for studies of populations that have not been reviewed in previous updates; studies listed in Table 4-1 address single health outcomes, and studies in Table 4-2 address multiple health outcomes. Stud- ies listed in Table 4-1 are discussed and critiqued in the health-outcome section for the outcome investigated. To reduce repetition in the report, studies in Table 4-2 are described in detail in this chapter and only briefly in the health-outcome sections; this avoids recapitulation of the information every time a new health outcome from the same study is discussed. Finally, new studies that report on populations that have been discussed in previous updates are listed in Table 4-3; these are described in detail in this chapter in the context of associated studies

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141 EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES TABLE 4-1 Citations on Study Populations New in Update 2006 with Results on a Single Health Outcome Exposure(s) Health Study Having Outcome Author Year Design Results Reported Study Population Occupational Studies Merletti 2006 Case– Pesticides (collinear Bone sarcomas Studies of rare et al. control results for herbicides, cancers in seven insecticides, and European countries fungicides) Morahan 2006 Case– Herbicides/ ALS Contributors to and control pesticides Australian Motor Pamphlett Neuron Disease DNA Bank Fritschi 2005 Case– Phenoxy herbicides NHL (B- Cases diagnosed et al. control cell, diffuse 2000–2001 in New large B-cell, South Wales follicular) Nordby 2004 Record Purchase proxies for Lip cancer Norwegian farmers et al. linkage general pesticide use Hardell 1999 Case– Phenoxy herbicides, NHL Population from and control MCPA northern and middle Eriksson Sweden Nordstrom 1998 Case– Herbicides Hairy-cell Population-based et al. control leukemia study of patients Hallquist 1993 Case– Phenoxy herbicides; Thyroid cancer Cases from Swedish et al. control chlorophenols Cancer Registry Environmental Studies Ascherio 2006 Prospective Pesticides/herbicides Parkinson’s Cancer Prevention et al. cohort disease Study II Nutrition Cohort Bloom 2006 Cross- Serum dioxins, Thyroid New York State et al. sectional serum TEQs function Angler Cohort Study Lee CC 2006 Cross- Serum TEQ Liver disease Residents around et al. sectional PCDD/Fs (fatty liver, incinerators in hepatic Taiwan function) Lin et al. 2006 Ecologic Residence in areas Reproduction Births before and cross- defined by ambient (gestational after incinerator in sectional TEQ levels after age, birth operation for three incinerator operation weight, and residential cohorts sex ratio) continued

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142 VETERANS AND AGENT ORANGE: UPDATE 2006 TABLE 4-1 Continued Exposure(s) Health Study Having Outcome Author Year Design Results Reported Study Population Mills and 2006 Cross- Organochlorines and Breast cancer Latina women in Yang sectional triazine herbicides California Porpora 2006 Case– Blood levels of Endometriosis Italian women et al. control PCBs (dioxin-like undergoing compounds) laparoscopy Foster 2005 Cross- 2nd trimester Thyroid Pregnancies at et al. sectional serum dioxin TEQ function (TSH McMaster University (CALUX) and thyroxine) (2002–2003) in mother Heilier 2005 Case– Dioxin TEQs in Endometriosis Belgian surgical et al. control blood patients vs healthy gynecologic patients Reynolds 2005a Case– Tissue levels (TCDD, Breast cancer Patients with breast et al. control TEQs) in breast cancer or benign biopsies breast condition Reynolds 2005b Case– Gestational Childhood California Childhood et al. control proximity to use cancers (all, Cancer Study of pesticides leukemias, listed as “probable CNS) human carcinogen” (including cacodylic acid) Sterling 2005 Case Dioxin Chloracne Individual poisonings and Hanke reports Wang 2005 Cross- PCDD, PCDF, and Thyroid Measurements from et al. sectional PCB congeners function cord blood, one and growth minute after delivery hormone status Cohen 2004 Case No specific AL Six case histories et al. histories exposures amyloidosis of people with AL amyloidosis and NHL Kato et al. 2004 Case– “Herbicides/lawn NHL Women diagnosed control pesticides” 10/1995–9/1998 in upstate New York

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143 EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES TABLE 4-1 Continued Exposure(s) Health Study Having Outcome Author Year Design Results Reported Study Population Reynolds 2004 Cohort Residential distance Breast cancer California Teachers et al. from application of Study cohort “probable human carcinogens” (including cacodylic acid), “endocrine disruptors” (including 2,4-D; cacodylic acid) Matsuura 2001 Prospective PCDDs; PCDFs; Thyroid Breast-fed vs bottle- et al. cohort PCBs function fed infants Nagayama 2001 Cross- Serum TEQs Thyroid Yusho patients et al. sectional hormone levels Studies of Vietnam Veterans Leavy 2006 Case– Service in Vietnam Prostate cancer Cancer registry of et al. control Western Australia ABBREVIATIONS: 2,4-D, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; ALS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; CALUX, Chemically Activated Luciferase Gene Expression; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; MCPA, 2-methyl, 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid; NHL, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; PCB, polychlorinated biphe- nyl; PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin; PCDF, polychlorinated dibenzofuran; TCDD, 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TEQ, total toxicity equivalency; TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone. reviewed by earlier VAO committees and are addressed briefly thereafter in the relevant health-outcome sections. Citations Reporting on a Single Endpoint in New Populations New studies reporting on only a single health outcome in previously un- studied populations are listed in Table 4-1 with an indication of the outcome. A description and critique of each study will appear only in the section of the report where the results on health outcomes are discussed. Citations Reporting on Multiple Endpoints in New Populations Newly accessed citations reporting on multiple health outcomes in popula- tions that have not been studied before are listed in Table 4-2, which indicates which endpoints were investigated. A single comprehensive discussion of each

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144 VETERANS AND AGENT ORANGE: UPDATE 2006 TABLE 4-2 Citations on Study Populations New in Update 2006 with Results on Multiple Health Outcomes Exposure(s) Health Outcome(s) Author Year Study Design Having esults Reported Study Population Occupational Studies Chen Z 2006 Case–control Maternal Childhood cancers Children’s Oncology et al. exposure to Group, US study of herbicides germ-cell carcinomas Chiu 2006 Case–control Occupational NHL Upper Midwest et al. exposure to Health Study herbicides McLean 2006 Cohort Nonvolatile Cancer mortality International et al. organochlorine by type collaborative study compounds of pulp and paper industry Carreon 2005 Case–control Arsenicals, Gliomas in women Upper Midwest et al. phenoxy Health Study herbicides; 2,4-D Chen 2005 Case–control Parental Childhood cancers Children’s Oncology et al. occupational Group, US study of exposures to germ-cell carcinomas pesticides and chemicals Lee 2005 Case–control 2,4,5-T; 2,4-D Brain cancer Residents of eastern et al. Nebraska Mills 2005 Nested 2,4-D Breast cancer United Farm Workers and case–control members (1987–2001) Yang Mills 2005 Nested 2,4-D Leukemias, NHL United Farm Workers et al. case–control members (1987–2001) Oh et al. 2005 Cross-sectional Dioxin Immunotoxicity, Waste incerator effects on sperm workers Park 2005 Cross-sectional “Pesticides” in Neuro-degenerative All deaths in 22 states et al. farming (based diseases: PD, from 1992–1998 on usual presenile dementia, occupation Alzheimers, motor on death neuron disease certificate) Chiu 2004 Pooled Occupational NHL Upper Midwest et al. analysis exposure to Health Study herbicides

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145 EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES TABLE 4-2 Continued Exposure(s) Health Outcome(s) Author Year Study Design Having esults Reported Study Population Lee 2004a Case–control 2,4,5-T; 2,4-D Cancer Residents of eastern et al. (esophageal, Nebraska stomach) Lee 2004b Pooled Occupational NHL Upper Midwest et al. analysis exposure to Health Study herbicides Ruder 2004 Case–control Arsenicals, Gliomas in men Upper Midwest et al. phenoxy Health Study herbicides, 2,4-D Torchio 1994 Cohort Farm work Cancer mortality Men licensed to use et al. agricultural pesticides in Piedmont area of Italy Reif 1989 Mixed Forestry Cancer incidence Men entered in New et al. worker Zealand Cancer Registry from 1980–1984 Magnani 1987 Case–control Herbicides, Cancers of brain, Male residents of et al. chlororphenol kidney, esophagus, three English counties pancreas, and melanoma Environmental Studies Chen 2006 Cross-sectional PCDD/Fs Hypertension, Tiawanese residents et al. diabetes, glucose living near an modulation, liver incinerator function Lee 2006 Repeat 2,4-D in carpet NHL Same study as Colt et al. dust et al., 2005 and Hartge et al., 2005 Colt 2005 Repeat 2,4-D in carpet NHL Same study as Hartge et al. dust et al., 2005 and Lee WJ et al., 2006 De Roos 2005a Case–control Dioxin, PCBs, NHL NCI SEER Case– et al. furans, TEQs control of NHL in plasma continued

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146 VETERANS AND AGENT ORANGE: UPDATE 2006 TABLE 4-2 Continued Exposure(s) Health Outcome(s) Author Year Study Design Having esults Reported Study Population Hartge 2005 Case–control 2,4-D in carpet NHL NCI SEER Case– et al. dust control of NHL (same study as Colt et al., 2005 and Lee WJ et al., 2006) Tango 2004 Environmental Dioxin Spontaneous Residential proximity et al. abortion or infant to incinerators death (with or without congenital malformations), low birth weight ABBREVIATIONS: 2,4-D, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4,5-T, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid; CNS, central nervous system; HD, Hodgkin’s disease; NCI, National Cancer Institute; NHL, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; NIOSH, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health; PCB, poly- chlorinated biphenyl; PD, Parkinson’s disease; SEER, Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results; TEQ, total toxicity equivalency. study is presented in this chapter, organized according to the type of study population. The results, with comments related to their reliability or limitations, appear in the appropriate outcome-specific sections. Their design information is presented in the cumulative tables in Appendix C. New Citations on Previously Studied Populations A number of long-term studies of populations exposed to the herbicides sprayed in Vietnam or to their components are of particular importance to the VAO project. It is essential that laboriously amassed information on a single population be recognized as such. Placing each new publication in historical con- text helps the committee to avoid factoring what is actually a single observation into its deliberations repeatedly. Such clusters of studies are useful in describing the timecourse of a population’s response to an exposure, and joint consideration of an entire body of research on a population may permit more insightful evalua- tion of relationships with potential confounding factors. Many of the cohorts that have contributed to the cumulative findings of the VAO committees have become dormant; the cohorts’ histories are briefly recapitulated in the body of this report, and the design properties of publications on them are tabled in Appendix C. Ad- ditional background information can be found in earlier reports in this series. Many cohorts potentially exposed to any of the chemicals of interest are moni- tored periodically, including the cohorts of the National Institute for Occupational

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147 EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES TABLE 4-3 Citations on Previously Studied Populations Study Exposure(s) Study Author Year Design Having Results Health Outcome(s) Reported Population Occupational Studies Farr et al. 2006 Cohort VAO chemicals Reproduction—fertility AHS not specifically (timing of menopause) addressed Hoppin 2006 Cohort Commercial Respiratory effects (wheeze) AHS et al. pesticide applicators; 2,4-D Alavanja 2005 Cohort Farmers, spouses Cancer incidence (full AHS et al. of farmers, spectrum) (1993–2002) commercial applicators Blair et al. 2005a Cohort Farmers (years Mortality (cancers—all and AHS used pesticides specific, diabetes, COPD, 10 or 10), cardiovascular, renal) spouses of farmers De Roos 2005b Nested “Herbicides,” Rheumatoid arthritis Women in et al. case– 2,4-D AHS control Engel et al. 2005 Cohort Ever/never use Breast cancer incidence AHS of phenoxy herbicides; 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T; 2,4,5-TP Kamel 2005 Cohort Days exposed to Neurologic symptoms AHS et al. herbicides ’t Mannetje 2005 Cohort Phenoxy herbicide Cancer mortality (full Subcohort et al. production worker spectrum) of IARC or sprayer (also cohort (New exposed to TCDD) Zealand) Alavanja 2004 Cohort Farmers, spouses Lung cancer incidence AHS et al. of farmers, commercial applicators Farr et al. 2004 Cohort VAO chemicals Reproduction—fertility AHS not specifically (timing of menstrual cycle) addressed Lawson 2004 Cross- Paternal serum Reproduction—birth weight, NIOSH et al. sectional lipid TCDD levels preterm delivery, birth cohort at conception defects based on PBPK exposure reconstruction continued

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148 VETERANS AND AGENT ORANGE: UPDATE 2006 TABLE 4-3 Continued Study Exposure(s) Study Author Year Design Having Results Health Outcome(s) Reported Population Environmental Studies Pahwa 2006 Case– Any phenoxy HD, multiple myeloma, STS Cross- et al. control herbicide, 2,4-D Canada Study of Pesticides and Health Baccarelli 2005b Cohort Serum TCDD Health status (GI disease, Chloracne et al. endocrine, respiratory, cases vs allergy, infectious disease, unexposed misc), current dioxin levels & exposed controls from Seveso Eskenazi 2005 Cross- Serum TCDD Age at menopause Seveso et al. sectional Women’s Health Study McDuffie 2005 Case– Any phenoxy NHL Cross- et al. control herbicide, 2,4-D Canada Study of Pesticides and Health Warner 2004 Cross- Serum TCDD Age at menarche Seveso et al. sectional Women’s Health Study Studies of Vietnam Veterans Kang et al. 2006 Cross- Serum TCDD, Diabetes, GI/digestive Army sectional deployed disease (liver disorders Chemical {sprayers vs hepatitis), circulatory Corps non-sprayers} vs disorders (heart conditions, Vietnam-era non-deployed hypertension), respiratory veterans disorders, all cancer Pavuk et al. 2006 Cohort Serum TCDD Prostate cancer AFHS level (low or high group) ADVA 2005a Cohort Deployed veterans Cancer incidence (full Male vs. Australian spectrum) (1982–2000) Australian population Vietnam veterans (all, Army, Navy, Air Force)

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149 EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES TABLE 4-3 Continued Study Exposure(s) Study Author Year Design Having Results Health Outcome(s) Reported Population ADVA 2005b Cohort Deployed veterans Mortality through 2001 Male vs. Australian (endocrine, nervous, Australian population circulatory, respiratory, Vietnam digestive, external causes, veterans cancer) ADVA 2005c Cohort Deployed vs. non- Mortality, cancer incidence Australian deployed National (as in ADVA, 2005a,b) male Army Service veterans National Service Vietnam veterans AFHS 2005 Cross- Ranch Hand Lipid levels, liver enzymes, AFHS sectional vs Comparison cardiovascular findings subjects subjects, serum participating TCDD in 2002 exam cycle Ketchum 2005 Cohort Cohort grouping Mortality (cancer, endocrine, AFHS and nervous system, circulatory, Michalek respiratory, or digestive diseases) Pavuk et al. 2005 Cohort Serum TCDD Cancer (melanoma, other AFHS level (4 groups), skin, prostate) (Comparison years in SEA subjects only) Boehmer 2004 Cohort Deployed vs. non- Mortality through 2000 CDC’s et al. deployed men (endocrine, metabolic, Vietnam immune, nervous system, Experience respiratory, circulatory, and Study digestive diseases; cancer) Kern et al. 2004 Cohort Serum TCDD Diabetes (insulin sensitivity) AFHS ABBREVIATIONS: 2,4-D, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4,5-T, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4,5-TP, 2 (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid; ADVA, Australian Department of Veterans Affairs; AFHS, Air Force Health Study; AHS, Agricultural Health Study; ALL, acute lymphocytic leukemia; CNS, central nervous system; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GI, gastroin- testinal; HD, Hodgkin’s disease; IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer; NCI, National Cancer Institute; NHL, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; NIOSH, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; PBPK, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic; PCB, polychlorinated biphenyl; SEA, Southeast Asia; SEER, Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results; STS, soft-tissue sarcoma; TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; VAO, Veterans and Agent Orange.

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