FIGURE 5-1 Results of the committee’s keyword search, using the program “Science Citation,” of papers published from January 2005 through April 2007 whose authors had home institutions in the country indicated. The keywords used were “quantum dot (QD) lasers” or “photonic crystal*” or “plasmonics” or “metamaterials.”

publication of relevance, Chinese Optics Letters (Journal).2 This, too, is in conjunction with OSA. At the national level, the Chinese government makes major investments through its university programs in science and engineering.

Japan funds nanotechnology research primarily through its Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) (Strategies Unlimited, 2005). Researchers in Japan such as Baba’s group at Yokohama National University and Noda’s group at Kyoto University have made seminal contributions in the achievement of photonic crystal devices for low-threshold lasing, low-loss waveguiding, and other applications. Researchers at the University of Tsukuba in Japan are exploring high-speed switching applications with photonic crystal devices. Major research activities are also located at the University of Tokyo. The Ohtsu research group has developed theories of optical near-field interactions with nanomaterials and is working toward the fabrication of prototype nanophotonic devices. This group is in


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