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Inc ex A Adenine, 6, 7 African clawed toad (Xenopus laevis), cell-cell communication in, 39-42, 46 Agency for International Development, 104 AIDS, 30 Altruism, biological basis for, 77-78 Amino acids differences between humans and other mammals, 86-87 order in proteins, 6, 7, 24, 84 Axons, 56, 57, 59, 69 Ayala, Francisco, 83-88 B Bacteria and atmosphere formation, 93-98 cyanobacteria, 92, 95 fossils in stromatolite formations, 90-96 photosynthesis by, 92, 94 restriction enzymes in, 14 use in copying DNA segments, 2; see also Recombinant DNA; Vectors Behavior altruistic, 77-78 biological basis for, 53, 62, 68-69, 77-78 evolution and, 75, 77 Berg, Paul, 7, 8-10, 17, 19, 23-24, 25-27 Biological development of African clawed toad (Xenopus Levis), 39-42 biological principles in, 34 of the brain, 73 and cancer, 43-46 communication among cells, 38-43 embryonic, 3, 33, 34, 36-37, 39-41 of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), 35-38 genetic factors in, 2, 11, 33-35 in vitro fertilization, 49 moral worth based on, 48 prelocalization of substances in eggs, 38-39, 42-43 processes, 43 segmentation, 37-38 see also Cell differentiation; Embryonic development Biological diversity evolution and, 3, 81 genetic mechanisms for, 82 of humans, 8, 15 measures of, 101 number of species, 94 preservation of, 100-106 in tropical forests, 102-103 Biological materials from humans and brain death theory, 50 and Christian traditions, 49-50 educational uses of, 47 embryos, 35, 47, 49 equitable distribution of, 51 ethical considerations in use of, 47-51 for organ transplants, 47, 50, 51 permission for use of, 50 111

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rules for use of, 48-50 social value of, 49-50 sources of, 47 Biological research accelerating pace of, 4, 5 advances in, 1-3 and ethical dilemmas, 1-2, 4, 6; see also Ethics and ethical considerations human materials use in, 47-51 humane treatment of animals in, 32 international collaboration in, 110 interrelation of fields in, 4, 81 misuse of, 32 public apprehension over, 29 role in ecosystem preservation, 104-105, 109-110 see also Molecular biology; and specific areas of research Blue-green algae, 92 Brain abstract functions of, 3, 53, 55-58 association areas, 57, 58, 60-65 building blocks of, 56-57 canary, 69-73 cerebellum, 54-55 cerebral cortex, 54-55, 59-60 cross section of, 54 dendrites, 56, 71 development of, 73 evolution of, 54, 55 fields of study, 4, 53 forebrain, 54, 58, 72 high-level vs. intermediate-level functions, 55-68 hindbrain, 54, 69 human, 53-63 hyperstriatum ventralis, pars caudalis (HVc), 69-72 input-output functions of, 55-58; see also Vision lateral geniculate nuclei, 59-61 monkey, 60-65, 67 motor cortex, 58, 60 neocortex, 55-58 neurotransmitters, 6, 56 pain receptors, 63 perception, 56-68 posterior parietal cortex, 58, 60-65, 68 robust nucleus of the archistriatum (RA), 69-71 size of, and life span, 72-73 spatial perception by, 60, 62-67 structure and interconnections, 2-3, 4, 53-55 subcortical visual centers, 59 synapses, 4, 56, 71 thalamus, 54, 59 visual cortex, 58-61, 63, 68 see also Neurons Brain death theory, 50 C Canaries, biological basis for song, 69-73, 75 Cancer anticancer compounds from tropical forests, 104 breast, 46 cause of, 9-10 colon, 46 differentiation into normal cells, 44-46 gene therapy and, 27 genetic basis for, 9-10, 13 Hodgkin's disease, 104 leukemia, 45, 46, 104 melanoma, 45 misconceptions about, 44-46 neuroblastoma, 13 proliferation of, 44 skin, 99 teratocarcinomas, 45 therapies, 44, 46 Caplan, Arthur, 47-51 Carnegie, Andrew, 76 Cell differentiation in African clawed toad (Xenopus laevis), 39-41, 46 of cancer cells into normal cells, 44-46 in cell cultures, 39, 41 control of, 6-7, 40-41, 46 extent in humans, 34 Cells nonreproducing, 43-44 replication by multiplication, 44 stem cells, 44, 74 see also Neurons Chimeras, 15, 42-43 Chlorofluorocarbons, 99, 100 Chromosomes aberrations in, 7-8, 14, 16, 23; see also Genetic diseases and disorders; Mutations crossing-over of, 11-12 cytogenic bands, 13, 14 genetic information in, 5 human, 8, 9, 13, 18 karotypes of, 9, 13 maps, see Genome maps and mapping organization of, 8, 9 Clones/cloning, 2, 15, 22, 24, 42 Conservation approaches to, 104-105 linking development and, 103-104 Cystic fibrosis, 8 Cytochrome c, 84-86, 88 D Darwin, Charles, 75, 77, 81-82, 83, 90 Diabetes, juvenile, 8 l 12 INDEX

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DNA base pairs in human cells, 6 control of biological development, 34, 82 discovery of, 2 fingerprinting, in forensic medicine, 17-18 fluorescent labeling of, 20-21 in fruit fly, 35 genetic bases in, 5, 6-7, 15 hybridization, 14, 24 interaction with chemical environment, 38 libraries, 15, 22-23 manipulation of, 2; see also Recombinant DNA mosaics, 15 probes, 10, 14, 15, 17-18 public knowledge of, 29 radiolabeling of, 20 restriction fragment length polymorphisms in, 15-16 stability in culture libraries, 22 structure of, 5, 6-7, 8 synthesizers, 24 universality of messages encoded in, 3 vectors, 22, 24-27 DNA sequencing applications throughout biology, 21-22 base pairs currently sequenced, 20-21 clone requirements for, 22-23 costs of, 22 data base management, 20-21, 22 funding for, 22 methods, 20-21, 22-23 objections to, 21-22 public education on, 31 rationale for, 29 recombinant DNA technology and, 2, 15 scope of project, 20, 22 technology for, 22-23 Dobzhansky, Theodore, 81 Down syndrome, 8 Duchenne muscular dystrophy, 8, 14 E Ecosystems economic and population pressures on, 102 human destruction of, 98-99 interactions in, 3, 92, 99 population and economic pressures on, 108-109 preservation of, 107-108 regeneration of, 103 stromatolites, 92 see also Tropical forests Electron microscopy, 4 Electrophoresis gel, 15, 20 pulsed electric fields, 23 two-dimensional, 24, 25 Embryonic development African clawed toad (Xenopus Levis), 39-42 brain development during, 73 in cell cultures, 39, 41, 45 constraints on research, 35, 47, 49 fate map of, 39 fruit fly, 36-37, 42 gastrulation, 40 human, 3, 33-34, 42-43 mouse, 43, 45 Enzymes defects in, 10 ligases, 15 restriction, 14-16 role of, 7 Ethics and ethical considerations based on biological morality, 79-80 breadth of, 107 DNA fingerprinting, 17-18 evolution and, 75-80 extinction of species and, 100-101 in fetal tissue transplants, 74 in gene therapy, 7 in genetic testing, 6-7, 17, 18-19 in organ transplants, 47, 51 normative ethics and metaethics, 76, 78-79 pace of biological research and, 4 predictions of diseases without cures, 18 research with human embryos, 35 social dimensions of, 49-50 in use of human materials, 47-51 Eukaryotes, 89, 92, 98 Evolution of bacteria, 93-96 behaviors that confer evolutionary advantage, 77-78 biblical creation and, 30 and biological diversity, 3, 81 of the brain, 54, 55 of DNA, 3 common ancestors in, 83-88 environmental changes and, 83 and ethics, 75-80 as a generator of progress, 76-77 genome maps for study of, 11 of Homo sapiens, 89 inside cells, 98-99 of microorganisms, 82-83 molecular studies of, 82-83 mutations and, 82, 83-84, 101 natural selection in, 75, 81-82, 83, 84, 101 origins of life, 97 oxygenic atmosphere and, 96-98 INDEX l 13

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periods of life, 89-93 Precambrian, 90-93, 98 of proteins, 83-89; see also Molecular clocks see also Fossils and fossil records Extinctions due to habitat destruction, 100, 103 ethical beliefs and attitudes toward, 100-101 and fossil record, 94 loss of genetic information through, 101-102 mass, 94, 100 oxygenic atmosphere and, 96 F Familial hypercholesterolemia, 8 Fitch, Walter, 85 Forensic medicine, DNA probes in, 17-18 Fossils and fossil records extinction and, 94 gaps in, 97 molecular clocks compared to, 86-87 from Phanerozoic period, 89-90 Precambrian, 90-93 of soft-bodied multicellular organisms, 89 stromatolites, 90-94 Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), 11, 35-38 G Gaucher disease, 13 Gene therapy criteria for, 23 ethical considerations in, 7, 23 moral considerations in, 30 problems with, 27 prospects for, 23-27 techniques, 24-27 Genes defined, 6 distance between, 12 dominant, 8, 11 expression of, 6, 11, 33-34, 38 number of, in different organisms, 101 recessive, 8, 13 synthetic, 24 Genetic bases, 5, 6-7, 15, 21 Genetic code, 3, 8, 15 Genetic diseases and disorders carriers of, 8, 17 diagnosis of, 10, 17-18; see also Genetic testing dominant, 8, 18 environmental interactions in, 8-9 mapping of, 10-11, 13-14, 18 monogenic, 8, 10, 13, 17, 18, 23 multigenic, 8-10, 13, 17 number identified, 10 prevalence of, 8 recessive, 8, 13 therapies for, 23; see also Gene therapy Genetic linkage maps, 16 Genetic markers, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20 Genetic testing confidentiality in, 19 ethical considerations in, 6-7, 17, 18 misinterpretation of, 19 patient understanding of, 19 social issues in, 19 use of DNA probes in, 17-18 Genetics contributions of molecular biology to, 2-3 and disease, 7-10; see also Genetic diseases and disorders early research techniques, 5 Genome defined, 5 noncoding portions of, 82 Genome maps and mapping fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), 11, 35 human, 11, 19 methodology, 11, 13-14 public education on, 31 rationale for, 29 recombinant DNA techniques and, 14-16 uses of, 10-11, 23, 82 see also DNA sequencing Greenhouse effect, 98-99, 100 Growth factors cell-cell communication through, 41 fibroblast, 41-43 human growth hormone, 31 transforming (TGF-beta), 41-43, 46 H Heart diseases, 8 Hodgkin's disease, 104 Hood, Leroy, 6, 17, 20-23 Human growth hormone, 31 Huntington's disease, 18 Hypertension, 8 I In vitro fertilization, 49 Infectious diseases, genetic basis for, 10 Inheritance of altruism, 77 elements of, 2, 8 mechanisms in, 11-12 l 14 INDEX

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K Karotypes, of human chromosomes, 9, 13 Kirschner, Marc, 33-35, 38-42 L Leukemia, 45, 46, 104 Ligases, 15 M Manic depression, 8 Margoliash, Emanuel, 85 Maugham, W. Somerset, 56 Melanoma, 45 Memory, basis for, 56, 72, 73 Mental retardation, 8, 13 Molecular biology analysis of genetic diseases through, 10 contributions of, 2-3, 5, 82-83 defined, 2 and embryology, 33-34 and evolution studies, 82 Molecular clocks accuracy of, 85-88 cytochrome c, 84-86, 88 fossil records compared to, 87-88 purpose of, 84 superoxide dismutase, 85-89 value of, 88-89 Monoclonal antibody, 73 Mountcastle, Vernon, 54-55, 60, 62-66 Mouse tumor cell line, 14 Mutations and biological development research, 34, 35-38 in fruit flies, 35-37, 38 lethal, 38 neutrality theory, 84 point, 16 role in evolution, 82, 83-84, 88, 101 N Neurons action potential, 56 communication among, 56, 58-59 electrical potential of, 56 features of, 56-57 foveal sparing, 63 generation during development, 74 migration to developing brain, 73 parietal visual, 63-68 in posterior parietal cortex, 60 regeneration/replacement of, 53, 62, 71-74 response to visual stimuli, 60, 62-65 sensitivity to direction of stimuli, 65 Neuroblastoma, 13 Neuroscience, 4, 53, 56; see also Brain; Neurons Nottebohm, Fernando, 68-74 o Organ and tissue transplants, 47, 50, 51, 74 Oxygen, atmospheric, and evolution, 95-98 Ozone layer, 96-97, 99, 100 p Parietal lobe syndrome, 62, 68, 74 Phenylketonuria, 10 Photosynthesis and photosynthesizers bacteria, 92, 94-95 evidence in fossil records, 94-96 hydrogen sulfide in, 95 oxygen-producing, 95-98 Pierce, Barry, 44 Plato, 3 Prokaryotes, 89, 92, 95, 98 Protagorus, 3 Proteins cytochrome c, 84-86, 88 defects in, 10 evolution of, 83-89, 96; see also Molecular clocks mutations in, 83-84 order of amino acids in, 6, 24, 84 role of, 6-7, 41, 82 sequencers and synthesizers, 6, 24-25 structure of, 6-7 superoxide dismutase, 85-89 R Radial glial cells, 73-74 Raven, Peter, 107-110 Rawls, John, 78 Recombinant DNA effects on biological research, 6 and genome mapping, 14-16 origin of, 14 products of, 15, 31 technique, 14-15, 25-26 uses of, 2, 5, 14-16, 31 Religion, and science, 30, 35, 49-50, 79, 100-101 Restriction enzymes, 14-16 Restriction fragment length polymorphisms defined, 15-16 and disease diagnosis, 17-18 library of, 20 as surrogate gene markers, 16 use in DNA sequencing, 22, 23 Retroviruses, 25-26 Rheumatoid arthritis, 8-9 ll\DEX 1 15

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RNA, structure and role of, 6-7, 26 Ruse, Michael, 76-80 S Schizophrenia, 8 Schopf, J. William, 90-93, 95-96, 98-99 Science and scientists agenda for obtaining public understanding and support, 31-32 funding of, 29 mechanistic view of nature, 30-31 media depictions and coverage of, 28, 29 and myth, 30, 32 public perceptions of, 28-32 transgressions of scientific standards, 29 Severe combined immunodeficiency disease, 24-25, 27 Sickle cell anemia, 8, 10 Singer, Maxine, 28-31 Social Darwinism, 75-77 Somatic cell hybridization, 14 Spencer, Herbert, 75 Stromatolites, 90-96 Superoxide dismutase, 85-89, 96 Syrinx, 69-70 Systematics, 82 T Tay-Sachs disease, 8, 17 Teratocarcinomas, 45 Thatcher, Margaret, 76 Thymidine, 71, 73 Tropical forests agricultural management of soils, 104 biological diversity in, 102 conservation approaches for, 103-105 deforestation rates, 102, 103 development pressures on, 102 extinction rates in, 103 land surface occupied by, 102 regeneration of, 103 species extinctions in, 100 strip lumbering in, 104 structure of, 102 suitability of land for agriculture, 102-103 value of wild species in, 104 U Ultraviolet light, ozone layer and, 96-97, 99, 100 Uracil, 6 V Vectors bacteria, 24 control of integration site, 27 retroviruses, 25-26 yeast, 22 Vision in association areas, 60-65 brain regions involved in, 58-65 control of eye movements, 59 defects of visual and spatial perception, 62, 74 level of attention and, 67 peripheral, 65-67 route from sensory input to perception, 58-60 spatial perception, 60, 62-67 W Warren, Robert Penn, 28 Wilson, Edward O., 100-106 Woolman, John, 30 y Yeast, 2, 22-23, 85, 88 l 16 INDEX