As the discussion that followed the presentations made clear, the papers open some potentially productive new avenues for research. More insight is needed into how financial markets recover from crisis states and what policies or regulatory regimes would speed that recovery and contribute to a more robust financial system.2 A related issue that merits further research is the trade-off in risk management practices between the objective of limiting risk ex ante and the effects of risk management constraints in the midst of a crisis. For instance, mark-to-market accounting is a risk management practice that makes trading performance transparent and prevents managers and traders from concealing losses while trying to gamble their way out of losing positions.3 Further, marking to market the value of trading positions combined with risk management loss limits that force a closeout of a losing position can prevent a loss from becoming large enough to bring down a firm. (Some bank failures and catastrophic investment fund losses are attributable to the failure to adhere to this basic risk management discipline.) However, as the papers presented suggest, the collective and mechanical exercise of such discipline on a widespread scale after a large market shock can create the type of liquidity spiral that leads to a market crisis.


The first paper, by Anna Pavlova of the London Business School and Roberto Rigobon of MIT (presented by Rigobon), examined the transmission of shocks between countries with cross-border trade and investment. Pavlova and Rigobon (2006) began studying this issue after they uncovered a divergence of views on a simple question: Would it be good for the stock market in the United States if the dollar depreciated? They found that the answer depended on whether the initial shock was a supply or a demand shock and also on the effects of wealth redistribution arising from the changes in the relative prices of goods and financial assets. The presentation focused on how a shock plays out in the real side of the economy and in the financial system and how the two sectors interact through the effects of wealth redistribution.

The paper highlights the ways in which financial market imperfections and institutional features of the financial system affect the transmission of shocks across countries. The model presented has a center country


For examples of research on these issues, see Allen and Gale (1994, 2005) and Holmstrom and Tirole (1998).


Mark-to-market accounting requires that the value of an investment, which might vary over the period for which it is held, be assigned the current market price of such an investment.

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