TABLE 6-3 Psychiatric Disorders


Study Design






CDC 1988a

Retrospective cohort, prevalence, population-based, telephone interview with screening medical examination at followup

2490 Vietnam-theater veterans, 1972 Vietnam-era veterans

Screening medical-health examination and psychologic evaluation with DIS and MMPI

Generalized anxiety OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1; depression OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4-2.9

Age at entry into Army, race, score on enlistment general technical test, enlistment status, year of entry, primary military occupational specialty

Low participation of control group


Kulka et al. 1990

Cross-sectional, NSVG

1200 Vietnam-theater men and 432 women, 412 Vietnam-era men and 304 women, 668 nationally representative civilians; subset of 344 theater veterans also underwent clinical interview with mental-health professional

DIS for psychiatric disorders, self-reported levels of exposure to war-zone stress; composite diagnoses of 260 theater veterans with MCRPS, SCID, and PTSD Scale of the MMPI

Current combat-related PTSD: 15.2% men, 8.5% women

Lifetime combat-related PTSD: 30.6% men, 26.9% women

Weighting of data for all analyses to account for interview-level nonresponse and different probabilities of selection in civilian cohort; control for age, race or ethnicity, female veteran occupation

Response rates over 83% of Vietnam-theater veterans, 76% of Vietnam-era veterans, 70% of civilians


Because use of self-reported war-zone stress exposure information corresponded well with information in military records, such as receipt of combat metals, this is one of few early studies that differentiated between types of stress encountered in a war zone

Detailed reviews and analyses of military data records to identify potential differences between veteran respondents and nonrespondents

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