Study Design








deployed and 1832 GW-era veterans


0.5%, social phobia 3.6% vs 1.7%, obsessive-compulsive disorder 2.8% vs 1.1%, PTSD 3.4% vs 0.9%, GAD 6.0% vs 2.7%, any anxiety disorder 16.0% vs 9.7%, any psychiatric disorder 26.1% vs 16.1%


relatively small




Depression OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.50-2.85





Any anxiety disorder OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.34-2.45


Toomey et al. 2007

Longitudinal, cross-sectional

1061 GW-deployed, 1128 GW-era veterans; used subset of veterans followed since 1995

CIDI used to diagnose axis I mental disorders, CAPS used to diagnose PTSD, CES

10 years after GW, persistent increased prevalence of mental disorders: war-onset current PTSD OR 5.78, 95% CI 2.62-12.74; all anxiety disorders OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.49-7.88; anxiety disorders other than PTSD OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.99; MDD OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.03-3.32; pain disorder OR 91.66, 95% CI 10.52-798.21; at least one mental disorder OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.44-3.11

Age, sex, ethnicity, years of education, duty type (active-duty vs reserve or National Guard), service branch, rank

Participation rate 53% of deployed veterans, 39% of nondeployed; possible participation bias although authors report that degree of bias was independent of deployment status


(Derived from Kang et al. 2000b)

NOTE: CAPS = Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, CEI = Combat Exposure Index, CI = confidence interval, CIDI = Composite International Diagnostic Interview, DIS = Diagnostic Interview Schedule, DIS-III-R = Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-III, DSM-III = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Health Disorders, third edition, GAD = generalized anxiety disorder, GW = Gulf War, MDD = major depressive disorder, NHSGWEVTF = National Health Survey of Gulf War Era Veterans and Their Families, NSVG = National Survey of the Vietnam Generation, NVVRS = National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study, OR = odds ratio, PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder, SCID = Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, VES = Vietnam Experience Study, VET Registry = Vietnam Era Twin Registry.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement