Study Design






Iowa Persian Gulf Study Group 1997

Cross-sectional, prevalence

1896 GW veterans, 1799 nondeployed veterans


Prevalence of alcohol abuse 17.4% in deployed vs 12.6% in nondeployed (p = 0.02); prevalence difference 2.4, 95% CI 0.4-4.5

Age at enlistment, race, year of enlistment, enlistment status (volunteer vs draftee), score on general technical test, primary military occupational specialty

No information on CAGE cut-point; 76% response rate

Ikin et al. 2004

Cross-sectional, mailed questionnaire followed by health assessment at clinic

1381 GW-deployed Australian veterans, 1377 nondeployed comparison veterans

CIDI for disorders pre-Gulf War, post-Gulf War, preceding 12 months

Alcohol dependence or abuse OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0; drug dependence or abuse OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2

Service type, rank, age, education, marital status

GW veterans were younger, more likely to be in Navy, and lower ranked; response rate was 50%

Fiedler et al. 2006

Cross-sectional, prevalence study, telephone interview, 10 years after conflict

967 GW-deployed vs 784 era veterans (67% active duty, 15% National Guard, 18% reserve); random sample from 1765 deployed and 1832 GW-era veterans

Telephone interview with CIDI based on the DSM-III-R

Deployed vs nondeployed had greater 12-month prevalence of following psychiatric disorders in previous 12 months: alcohol dependence 4.6% vs 3.1% (NS); drug dependence 1.2% vs 0.1% (p < 0.05) ; any dependence 5.1% vs 3.2% (p < 0.05)


Response ratewas 59% deployed and 51% nondeployed; differences in demographics between respondents and nonrespondents was relatively small; being deployed to places other than the Gulf was a risk factor for alcohol/drug dependence

NOTE: CAGE = cutting down, feeling annoyed by people criticizing your drinking, feeling guilty about drinking, and using alcohol as an eye-opener in the morning, CI = confidence interval, CIDI = Composite International Diagnostic Interview, DIS = Diagnostic Interview Schedule, DIS-III-R = Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-III,DSM-III = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Health Disorders, third edition, GW = Gulf War, NS = not significant, NSVG = National Survey of the Vietnam Generation, NVVRS = National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study, OR = odds ratio, PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder, VES = Vietnam Experience Study, VET Registry = Vietnam Era Twin Registry.

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