TABLE 6-5 Neurobehavioral and Neurocognitive Effects


Study Design






David et al. 2002

Case-control, clinical evaluations

209 male UK GW-deployed, 54 Bosnia-deployed, 78 era nondeployed soldiers randomly selected from larger cohort of UK veterans who participated in earlier mailed survey (see Unwin et al. 1999)

WAIS-R scaled scores: vocabulary, digit span, arithmetic, similarities, picture arrangement, block design, object assembly, digit symbol, PASAT, sustained attention to response task, Stroop Trailmaking A and B

Only difference between groups was lower score in Purdue pegboard for GW-deployed group

ANCOVA adjusted for education, age, NART, BDI; multiple comparison adjustment for least significant difference procedure and Bonferroni

Careful treatment of potential confounders, such as depression, mood, intelligence, education

WMS: logical memory (immediate and delayed recall), verbal paired associates (immediate and delayed recall), Camden recognition memory test, Purdue pegboard; individually administered tests, blinded examiners

Proctor et al. 2003


143 male Danish GW-deployed veterans, 72 male nondeployed troops randomly selected from 84% and 58% of total Danish armed forces deployed and nondeployed, respectively, at time of GW

WAIS-R Information subscale, continuous performance test, trailmaking, WCST, Purdue pegboard, WAIS-R block design, CVLT, WMS visual reproductions, TOMM; individually administered tests except in computer-based NES; blinded examiners

No overall differences in neuropsychologic domains, significant test differences in domains (p ≤ 0.05) for CVLT and WCST

MANCOVA by neuropsychologic domain, adjusted for age

Response rate 75%

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