TABLE 6-12 Reproductive Effects


Study Design






CDC 1988c

Retrospective cohort, prevalence, population-based, telephone interview with medical examination at followup

3366 birth records of veterans’ children: 1791 of Vietnam veterans, 1575 of era veterans

Reproductive outcomes and child health measured through telephone interview and hospital birth records: pregnancies that ended early, including miscarriages, induced abortions, tubal pregnancies, DOB, sex of child, status (live birth or stillbirth), major health problems, low birth weight, leukemia or other cancer, birth defects and CSMs, infant and child mortality

Fathering pregnancy that ended in miscarriage OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4); other reproductive outcomes no difference; birth defects OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8-1.4; based on hospital birth records

Age of veteran at birth of children: child (or adverse pregnancy outcome), race, year of entry into Army, enlistment status, general technical aptitude test score, primary military occupational specialty, time between enlistment and birth of child, maternal age, gravidity

Lack of data on mothers of children studied concerning potentially important exposures: tobacco, alcohol, drug use, exposure of father


Recall bias of veteran regarding adverse reproductive outcomes, such as miscarriages

Cowan et al. 1997

Cohort, routinely collected data on all live births in military hospitals 1991-1993

33,998 infants born to GW-deployed veterans, 41,463 to nondeployed veterans

Occurrence of birth defects recorded in medical file

Any birth defect: men OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.91-1.03; women OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.94-1.22

Mother’s age, ethinity, marital status

Obtained information only on live births in military hospitals and only on children of active-duty personnel; no data from later monitoring; information was only on live births, not, for example, miscarriages

Severe birth defects (men and women) OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.90-1.10

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