Study Design






DeStefano et al. 1989

Cross-sectional, prevalence, population based, telephone interview followed by screening medical examination

2490 Vietnam-theater veterans, 1972 Vietnam-era veterans randomly selected from 7924 theater veterans and 7364 era veterans who entered Army in 1965-1971; of 705 veterans without vasectomy who were eligible for semen-analysis substudy, 571 (81%) participated

Computer-assisted semen-analysis system for more sensitive analysis than CDC 1988b

Sperm concentration (≤20 million cells/mL) OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.7

Six covariates as above plus race, age at entry into Army, year of entry, type of enlistment, general technical test score, military occupational specialty

Semen analysis performed only on subsample of men

(Derived from VES)

Ishoy et al. 2001

Cross-sectional, prevalence

661 Danish peacekeepers deployed to Gulf in 1990-1997, 215 Danish nondeployed military controls

Clinical examination, including hormone measurements; interview

Sexual problems OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-6.0, p = 0.003; no difference in concentrations of reproductive hormones


Deployed veterans reported more sexual problems if they had seen killed or wounded people (p = 0.002), watched friend or colleague be threatened or shot at (p = 0.02), or been threatened with arms themselves (p = 0.04), or perceived psychologic stress during deployment

NOTE: BMI = body-mass index, CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CI = confidence interval, CSM = cerebrospinal malformation, DOB = date of birth, GW = Gulf War, OR = odds ratio, RR = relative risk, VES = Vietnam Experience Study.

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