TABLE 6-14 Symptom Reporting


Study Design






General symptoms and signs

CDC 1988b

Retrospective cohort, prevalence, population-based, telephone interview followed by screening medical examination

2490 Vietnam-theater veterans, 1972 Vietnam-era veterans randomly selected from 7924 theater veterans and 7364 era veterans who had entered Army in 1965-1971

Perceived health status; somatic symptom; neurologic examination

Health status poor or fair OR 1.9, 95% CI excludes 1.0, p < 0.05; somatic symptoms OR 1.7, 95% CI excludes 1.0, p < 0.05; peripheral neuropathy symptoms OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2

Age at enlistment, race, year of enlistment, enlistment status (volunteer vs draftee), score on general technical test, primary military occupational specialty

Low participation rate in control group, CI not given


Ishoy et al. 1999


686 Danish peacekeepers deployed to gulf in 1990-1997 vs 231 age- and sex-matched armed forces nondeployed controls

Health examination by physician, including lung function and self-report questionnaire

Prevalence: repeated headaches 19.2% vs 6.5%; balance disturbances or dizziness 13.65% vs 3.9%; concentration or memory difficulties 31.2% vs 8.2%; abnormal fatigue 26.4% vs 10.8%; sleep problems 19.8% vs 6.9%; feeling nervous, irritable, or agitated 21.0% vs 9.1%


Participation rate 83.6% deployed, 57.8% nondeployed

Unexplained illness

Blanchard et al. 2006


1035 GW-deployed veterans, 1116 nondeployed veterans

CMI determined by medical examination in 1999-2001

CMI (all cases) OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.61-2.90; mild to moderate cases OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.41-2.63; severe cases OR 4.65, 95% CI 2.27-9.52

Age, sex, race, education, duty type, service branch, rank, income, combat exposure score, Khamisiyah exposure, psychiatric conditions and other conditions diagnosed before GW


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