TABLE 7-3 Incarceration


Study Design






Black et al. 2005

Cross-sectional survey conducted in 1995-1996

985 Gulf War regular military, 911 Gulf War National Guard or reserve, 968 nondeployed regular military, 831 nondeployed National Guard or reserve veterans drawn as a random sample from 4886 Iowa-based veterans

Structured telephone interview to assess prevalence of incarceration in Gulf War vs non-Gulf War veterans

Deployed vs nondeployed veterans incarcerated after August 1990: OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.5-1.0; ever incarcerated: OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.9-1.3

Age, sex, race, rank, branch of service, military status

Recall bias, limited generalizability, lack of specificity of details of incarceration

Yager et al. 1984

Cross-sectional survey conducted 6-15 years after leaving service (1977-1979)

350 Vietnam-theater veterans, 363 era veterans, 629 nonveterans

Interview about war experience variable

Arrest rate increased by average of 2.32 percentage points and conviction rate by average of 1.23 percentage points for every point increase on Combat Exposure Scale (p < 0.01)

Age, race, drug use, alcohol use

Recall bias, limited generalizability

Combat Exposure Scale

Incarceration prevalence between Vietnam theater and era veterans

Prevalence of being arrested after discharge:

-heavy combat exposed, 19.6% nonviolent offenses, 4.9% violent offenses

-moderate combat exposure, 17.7% and 2.1%, respectively

-light combat exposure, 5.7% and 0.6%, respectively

NOTE: CI = confidence interval, OR = odds ratio.

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