TABLE 7-4 Adverse Employment Outcomes

Reference

Study Design

Population

Outcomes

Results

Adjustments

Comments

Zatzick et al. 1997a

Cross-sectional survey; archival analysis of data from NVVRS

1200 male Vietnam-theater veterans; 242 veterans with PTSD vs 948 without PTSD

Not working vs working associated with PTSD

OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5-7.6

Demographic characteristics, other medical disorders

Unable to determine causality, employment status determined with single question, possible recall bias due to self-reports

(Derived from NVVRS)

Zatzick et al. 1997b

Cross-sectional survey; archival analysis of data from NVVRS

432 female Vietnam theater veterans, mostly nurses; 37 with PTSD

Not working vs working associated with PTSD

OR 10.4, 95% CI 1.8-61.9

Demographic characteristics, other medical disorders

Unable to determine causality, employment status determined with single question, possible recall bias due to self-reports

(Derived from NVVRS)

Savoca and Rosenheck 2000

Cross-sectional survey

1417 Vietnam-era veterans

Estimates of hourly wages and probability of employment

Theater veteran: 60% higher chance of employment (p < 0.01); 50% higher wages (NS)

Demographic characteristics, length of service, other psychiatric disorders, difficulty of job

Unable to determine causality, comparison group is nonrepresentative

(Derived from NVVRS)

Comparison group is white veterans with no history of psychiatric disorders and deployed elsewhere

PTSD: 50% lower chance of employment; 16% lower wages

NOTE: CI = confidence interval, NS = nonsignificant, NVVRS = National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study, OR = odds ratio, PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder.



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