Michael DeWalt is chief scientist, aviation systems, for Certification Services, Inc., a Seattle-area aviation consultancy. Mr. DeWalt is authorized by the FAA, as a consultant designated engineering representative (DER), to approve software for any aircraft system, at any software level. In addition to his DER duties, he helps clients who have unusual project requirements to develop acceptable software-approval techniques. For 11 years, he was the FAA’s national resource specialist for aircraft software. He was responsible for starting the international committee that created DO-178B and served as its secretary. He was also secretary of the committee that created DO-248B and DO-278. Mr. DeWalt has been involved with both civil and military software avionics and certification for 26 years, working for airframe manufacturers and avionics suppliers. In addition to his DER certificate, he has a B.S.E.E., a master’s in software engineering, and a commercial pilot’s license.


Reed Gardner is a professor and chair of the Department of Medical Informatics at the University of Utah. He has been a codirector of medical computing at LDS, Cottonwood, and Alta View Hospitals in Salt Lake City. He is one of the principal developers and evaluators of the medical expert system known as HELP (Health Evaluation through Logical Processing). Dr. Gardner’s primary academic and research interests are evaluating the benefits of medical expert systems as they relate to quality and cost-effectiveness; development of software oversight committee methods for evaluation of safety and effectiveness of medical software and systems; public health informatics; applying computers in intensive-care medicine; and developing devices and communications methods to acquire patient data at the bedside. He is the author or coauthor of more than 300 articles in the fields of medical informatics and engineering. Dr. Gardner has been a journal editor and on the editorial boards of Critical Care Medicine and other critical care journals as well as the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association (JAMIA). He is a fellow of the American College of Medical Informatics and past president of the American Medical Informatics Association. Dr. Gardner holds a B.S.E.E. from the University of Utah (1960) in electrical engineering and a Ph.D. from the University of Utah (1968) in biophysics and bioengineering.


Peter Lee is a professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. He joined the faculty of Carnegie Mellon’s School of Computer Science in 1987, after completing his doctoral studies at the University of Michigan. He is known internationally for his research contributions in areas related to information assurance, especially the application of programming language technology to operating systems design, networking, and computer security. Dr. Lee is best known for his co-invention of the



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