of opportunity as well as the significant challenges that must be overcome. As Montek Singh Ahluwalia noted, the agenda for changing India’s innovation system includes continuing economic reforms through expanding the consensus on reform, and investing in the nation’s hard infrastructure so that the benefits of reform touch all Indians. As R. A. Mashelkar and P. V. Indiresan affirmed, the agenda for changing India’s innovation system includes a greater focus on commercializing the results of research conducted in India’s universities and laboratories for commercial and social benefit, as well as expanding India’s education base in a way that rewards merit while also being more socially inclusive. Growing India’s manufacturing base also translates the benefits of a growing economy more broadly. As Surinder Kapur noted, this involves focusing India’s business culture on quality production and practice, ready to adapt to new ways of doing things in order to be internationally competitive. Finally, as Minister Kapil Sibal observed, changing India’s innovation system to meet India’s development needs calls for enhanced cooperation with the United States, particularly given the growing interdependencies among the two large knowledge economies.
The United States can play a constructive role in facilitating the development of Indian capabilities by continuing to expand cooperative scientific exchange, demonstrating the value of a policy framework that facilitates the development and expansion of globally competitive R&D infrastructure, and, not least, by sharing best practices on innovation policies needed to unleash India’s enormous pool of talent. This cooperation, in turn, can accelerate scientific advance and provide a positive environment for the expansion of the very real synergies that exist between two of the world’s great democracies.