technology. In short, many computing and communications systems are themselves infrastructure and serve as components of the infrastructure of other organizations.

In the future, computing and communications technologies (collectively, information technologies) are likely to be found in places where they are essentially invisible to everyday view: in cars, wallets, clothing, refrigerators, keys, cabinets, watches, doorbells, medicine bottles, walls, paint, structural beams, roads, dishwashers, identification (ID) cards, telephones, and medical devices (including some embedded in human beings). Computing will be embedded in myriad places and things or will be easily transported in pockets or on wrists. Computing devices will be coupled to multiple sensors and effectors. Computing and communications will be seamless, enabling the tight integration of personal, family, and business systems. Sensors, effectors, and computing will be networked together so that they pass relevant information to one another automatically.

In this vision of truly pervasive computing, the ubiquitous integration of computing and communications technologies into common everyday objects enhances their usefulness and makes life easier and more convenient. Understanding context, personal information appliances will make appropriate information available on demand, enabling users to be more productive in both their personal and professional lives. And, as has been true with today’s desktops and mainframes, interconnections among all of these now-smart objects and appliances will multiply their usefulness many times over.

2.2
THE NATURE OF CYBERSECURITY VULNERABILITIES

A security vulnerability in an IT artifact (e.g., a part, hardware component, software module, data structure, system, and so on) exists if there is a way to manipulate the artifact to cause it to act in a way that results in a loss of confidentiality, integrity, and availability.

  • Confidentiality. A secure system will keep protected information away from those who should not have access to it. Examples of failures that affect confidentiality include the interception of a wireless signal and identity theft.

  • Integrity. A secure system produces the same results or information whether or not the system has been attacked. When integrity is violated, the system may continue to operate, but under some circumstances of operation, it does not provide accurate results or information that one would normally expect. The alteration of data



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